I know about sujud sahw etc.

But what is unclear to me is the correct proceeding while praying if one discovered a mistake, let me give some excamples:

  • You stood up for the third rak'a started recitation and recalled, you doidn't perform the tahiyyat at the end of the 2nd rak'a: Should one go back in the sitting position and re-do the tahiyyat and stand up etc. and perfrom sujud sahw at the end or should one go on praying and do sujud sahw at the end of the prayer.
  • While reciting the surah ro verses after al-Fatihah you remember that you should recite loudly (in fajr/maghrib/'isha' first two raka'a) or sielentlently (in dhor/'asr) can I simply restart from al-Fatihah or correct from the point I've discovered my mistake
  • One stood up and recalled that one already prayed the full amount of raka'as again should the raka'a be completed or should one go down in a sitting position?

So this is mainly about mistakes that one have discovered a moment too late to proceed in a correct manner.

I'd appreciate an answer covering all scholarly views (and conditions). However any answer covering one view would be fine as long as you add this information.

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