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Are blacks and whites equal? Are women and men equal? By equal I’d say in terms of opportunity for reward or equal in terms of the mercy and love God has for them.

I always had the idea that in Islam specifically men are superior to women and that Muslims are superior to other religions or that Arabs generally have it better than others.

Are there any Quranic verses or anything that suggest otherwise for each of these categories?

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  • I'd recommend adding a time interval in your question. For examples, before Muhammed those truly followed the teachings of Jesus are considered believers (Muslims) in Islam. Similar for all the ummah's who followed their Prophets during their era.
    – Ahmed
    Nov 12 '20 at 15:30
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Everyone is equal in that every action they do will be rewarded by Allah fairly and justly. Allah will not reduce someone's reward for prayer because of their skin color or because of their gender as long as the action is of the same quality.

Allah says:

O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted. (49:13)

On the other hand, Muslims are not equal to non-Muslims. Muslims are those who surrender to Allah's will and follow his religion. Non-Muslims are those that do not do that. It would be complete injustice if they were equal in the eyes of Allah.

Allah says:

Then is one who was a believer like one who was defiantly disobedient? They are not equal.

As for those who believed and did righteous deeds, for them will be the Gardens of Refuge as accommodation for what they used to do.

But as for those who defiantly disobeyed, their refuge is the Fire. Every time they wish to emerge from it, they will be returned to it while it is said to them, "Taste the punishment of the Fire which you used to deny."

And We will surely let them taste the nearer punishment1 short of the greater punishment that perhaps they will return [i.e., repent].

And who is more unjust than one who is reminded of the verses of his Lord; then he turns away from them? Indeed We, from the criminals, will take retribution. (32:18-22)

And Allah says:

Then will We treat the Muslims like the criminals?

What is [the matter] with you? How do you judge? (68:35-36)

The difference between this and the above quality is that being Muslim is a choice and decision anyone can make, and no one can change their skin color or gender.

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