Selamun aleikum,

I know, that there are three conditions, that an Ahruf/Qiraat is accepted by the scholars. One is Arabic Grammer, one is mass transmission and one ist conformity with one of the Uthmanic mushafs. My question: Is every Ahruf confirmed to fulfill the last condition with the mushafs? Or are there some, which are not proven to confirm it?

Because this statement led me to this question: „Finally note that expecting any reading of the Qur'an to fully coincide with the rasm of al-Moshaf is a wrong expection as the rasm was kept due to the fact that many scholars conisdered it as canonical nevertheless they knew it is not going ahead with the correct recitation as all scholars agree that the Qur'an is and has to be transmitted orally not via a scripture nor based on it.“ Source: https://islam.stackexchange.com/questions/30409/how-to-explain-the-recitation-لَئ%D9%90نْ-انجــينا-verse-6-63-by-al-azami-in-his-bo

Is there a misunderstanding for this statement? When is it true, that not every recitation is confirmed, what would that mean for the third condition, the importance of it, would be gone? Or is every recitation confirmed to fulfill the condition?

Allah knows best.

  • Of course all of them follow the given conditions. Further recitation might have a higher priority level among the conditions because the recitation came before the compilation. And there were even more than the ten qira'at which followed these conditions. But only these ten found enough support by students and acceptance among the Ummah. In fact I've added a short (not detailed) description of these conditions in my answer as this very question has developed with my answer at the end I didn't want to delete irrelevant parts once the intention of OP was clarified. – Medi1Saif Oct 8 '20 at 16:10
  • What I meant to say is that we recite الصلاة (as-Salaa(t)) and الزكاة (az-Zaka(t)) not as written in the moshaf الصلوة (as-Salawa(t)) and الزكوة (az-Zakawa(t)). So the codices themselves don't correspond with Arabic language orthography. And there are scholarly statements explaining this. See here. – Medi1Saif Oct 8 '20 at 16:36
  • Thanks, Now I understand. Can I ask you another question? In verse 6:63 you explained very well how the Hafs recitation and the Kufa mushaf are the same, with regard to the Ya. The point is, I am not that knowledgeable in Arabic, I only know basic stuff. Can you explain in simpler ways, how the recitation would be the same with Kufa script. – FromAnatolia Oct 8 '20 at 17:42
  • No actually Hafs and Sho'abah from 'Asim differ here it is the only qira'a that follows the orthography of the Kufi moshaf as is known today and not what rasm scholars referred to as a yaa' instead of an alif between the jeem ج and (last) noon ن. While the others (al-Kissaa-i and Hamzah) pronounce أنجانا anjaanaa a close to anjeenaa with a sound of ي between jeem ج and (last) noon ن one might say. In fact Hafs is the riwaya with the least use of imaalah and an excess of Hamzas. – Medi1Saif Oct 8 '20 at 17:51
  • @FromAnatolia You can think of Hafs's recitation of the 6:63 ya as an alif, similar to the recitation of the name Musa as an alif even though there is a ya in the name. – The Z Oct 8 '20 at 19:14

The recitations of the Quran are allowed some leeway of a few letters in matching the masaahif of Uthman (RA).

There are a few different cases where the leeway is given. One is when some of the writing in the mushaf is not how the word would usually be written or pronounced.

The reason for those "strange" spellings Allah knows best. The Sahabah agreed upon them, and many scholars have given some explanations regarding them.

For example, as already commented, الصلاة and الزكاة are written with a و in the mushaf.

Likewise, in verse 27:21 is pronounced لَأَذْبَحَنَّهُ and the extra alif is not used.

And, enter image description here in verse 3:144 is pronounced أَفَإِنْ مَاتَ with no ي.

Allah knows best why the Sahabah decided to spell those words that way.

One reason that is opined for at least the last two examples is that since the letters ا, و, ي also represent sounds (aa, oo, ee), the Sahabah could have been using them to indicate that the alif in أَفَإِنْ had a kasrah and the alif in لَأَذْبَحَنَّهُ had a fathah.

Another leeway given to the recitations of the Quran is when the writing of the mushaf is according to a rarer pronunciation. In this case, reciting according to the original dialect is allowed.

For example, the word صِرَاطٌ is originally سِرَاطٌ in Arabic. صِرَاطٌ is simply a variation from the normal word. Both these variations existed in the Prophet's time. So, when the mushaf is written with the ص, it is allowed for some recitations like that of Yaqub and Ibn Kathir to recite it with a س since that is the original.

An explanation given for the writing being of the rarer variation is to allow this reversion to the original. It wouldn't be possible to go the other way around (i.e. if the mushaf is written in the original, no one would be able to recite the rarer one), so the Sahabah chose it like that to allow for the rarer and original pronunciations at the same time.

  • I just wanted ask something regarding the Ya and Wow in your example. I understood what you want to say. But were there no Sukoon of Alif, Ya and Wow in the mushafs, that would stretch the vocal sound. Or are they only understood as something else. Or would they use it, but not that often like today. – FromAnatolia Oct 8 '20 at 20:13
  • @FromAnatolia Of course there were. That's how most of the words use them. Like الرَّحِيمِ, الْعَالَمِينَ, الدِّينِ, إِيَّاكَ etc. What I mentioned is that, in those special cases, they could have been used as indicators for the harakah according to some scholars. – The Z Oct 8 '20 at 20:33
  • And regarding the last example with wheter sin or sad is used. So the original pronounciation can only be used, when there is also a transmission, am I right? – FromAnatolia Oct 8 '20 at 20:38
  • And regarding the Sukoon, I Heard that in many old manuscripts the Alif Sukoon would not be written down, but pronounced, that’s why I asked. Sorry for so many questions 😅. I just want to finish these topics. May Allah protect us. – FromAnatolia Oct 8 '20 at 20:41
  • @FromAnatolia Yes, of course. We only recite according to mutawatir transmissions! As for the alif sukoon perhaps you mean the dagger alif? That is a type of diacritic without an actual alif letter, but it can be pronounced if there is a transmission. For example, مَٰلِكِ in Fatihah is written originally just ملك without any alif letter. But, it still matches the mushaf because alif can be considered a diacritic. The alif letter is dropped in writing in those cases for compactness. It's very common in the Quran. – The Z Oct 8 '20 at 20:51

As far as Ahrufs are concerned, there are various different scholars who have given various different explanations to what an Ahrufs are meant in the Hadith. The soundest opinion is that wordings of the Holy Koran might differ in these Ahrufs and might carry different meanings, but they are based on the theme.

The following is taken from Islamqa.info (Fatwa no. 5142):-

The best of the scholarly opinions concerning what is meant is that there are seven ways of reciting the Qur’aan, where the wording may differ but the meaning is the same; if there is a different meaning then it is by way of variations on a theme, not opposing and contradiction.

(Web Source:- https://islamqa.info/en/answers/5142/the-revelation-of-the-quraan-in-seven-styles-ahruf-sing-harf)

Secondly, the transmission of the Holy Koran in seven Ahrufs has been soundly reported from the Hadith. There might be some readings that differ friom Uthmanic readings. However, they are based on difference of a theme.

  • This might be considered as an answer of another question OP asked, but seems hardly relevant here. Because the topic here is rasm of the mushaf which certainly is related to that of ahruf, but still a different topic. – Medi1Saif Oct 8 '20 at 16:25
  • @Medi1Saif - As far as Rasm is concerned, can you please tell more about it? I have never heard about Rasm. – Ren Oct 8 '20 at 21:43
  • Please take a look at the linked post of OP as the quote is part of my answer there. – Medi1Saif Oct 10 '20 at 14:58

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