Salaam everyone, Why did Muhammad (s) make a surprise attack on Banu Mustaliq. In books of sirah, it says Banu Mustaliq were preparing to make an attack, but I don't trust books of sirah. Please can someone provide me a sahih/hasan hadith or a commentary on hadith (e.g. An-Nawawi, Ibn Hajar) on the reason behind the attack on Banu Mustaliq
The answer to your question can be found here:-
The following are the most important reasons behind this Battle
A- The tribe of Banu Al-Mustaliq supported Quraysh and joined it during the Battle of Uhud against the Muslims. It was among the block of Ahaabeesh tribes who participated in the battle supporting Quraysh.
B- The tribe of Banu Al-Mustaliq governed the main road leading to Makkah. It was a strong barrier that prevented the Muslims from reaching Makkah.
C- News came to the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu
alayhi wa sallam ( may Allah exalt his mention ) that Banu Al-Mustaliq were mobilizing an army to fight him under the leadership of Al-Haarith bin Abi Dhiraar. Having heard about that, the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam ( may Allah exalt his mention ) set out and met them in one of their watering areas called Al-Muraysee‘ in the direction from Qadeed to the sea coast. The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allah exalt his mention ) made them taste a bitter defeat there.
News reached the Prophet [peace be upon him] on Sha'ban 2nd. to the effect that the chief of Bani Al-Mustaliq, Al-Harith bin Dirar had mobilised his men, along with some Arabs, to attack Madinah. Buraidah bin Al-Haseeb Al-Aslami was immediately despatched to verify the reports. He had some words with Abi Dirar, who confirmed his intention of war. He later sent a reconnoiterer to explore the positions of the Muslims but he was captured and killed. The Prophet [peace be upon him] summoned his men and ordered them to prepare for war. Before leaving, Zaid bin Haritha was mandated to see to the affairs of Madinah and dispose them. On hearing the advent of the Muslims, the disbelievers got frightened and the Arabs going with them defected and ran away to their lives. Abu Bakr was entrusted with the banner of the Emigrants, and that of the Helpers went to Sa'd bin 'Ubada. The two armies were stationed at a well called Muraisi. Arrow shooting went on for an hour, and then the Muslims rushed and engaged with the enemy in a battle that ended in full victory for the Muslims. Some men were killed, women and children of the disbelievers taken as captives, and a lot of booty fell to the lot of the Muslims. Only one Muslim was killed by mistake by a Helper. Amongst the captives was Juwairiyah, daughter of Al-Harith, chief of the disbelievers. The Prophet [peace be upon him] married her and, in compensation, the Muslims had to manumit a hundred others of the enemy prisoners who embraced Islam, and were then called the Prophet's in-laws. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/112,113; Ibn Hisham 2/289,290,294,295]
This was also narrated by Aasim bin Amr bin Qutada and collected by Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani in Fathul Bari (496/7).
Assalamualaikum waramatullahi wabarakatuhu
Actually, the surprise attack was done to Banu mustaliq and the reason was, prophet Muhammad SAW hear that they are preparing to attack Muslim, and with reference with the following Hadith
Ibn 'Aun reported : I wrote to Nafi' inquiring from him whether it was necessary to extend (to the disbelievers) an invitation to accept (Islam) before engaging them in fight. He wrote (in reply) to me that it was necessary in the early days of Islam. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) made a raid upon Banu Mustaliq while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others."Sahih Muslim vol.3 book 17 no.4292 p.942.
Mohammed led a surprise attack on the Banu al-Mustaliq tribe while they were inattentive and their cattle were drinking water. That was when Juwairiyyah bint al-Harith was obtained. [as Mohammed's wife]" Abu Dawud vol.2 no.227 p.727-728
Jazakumul llahu khayran