3

As we have many questions about the topic of najasah and doubts on whether it is cleaned or treated well. Like:
How to properly clean carpet from Najasah?
Ritual impurity in pants
Do i have to wash the undergarment?
I DONT REMEMBER WERE THE IMPURITY IS
Will my pure clothes become impure by washing them in a washing machine with impure clothes?
Does the "three times" count still apply if we use "detergent"?

I'd like to ask a more general question on how to treat najasah on items in order to clean it (make it tahir again). As the question is general I expect an answer for all cases that scholars have discussed.

Usually najasah is treated with water, and this is the major and primary solution to regain taharah. But there are other options, I'd like to know these options for cleaning najasah without water and when they apply?

Please quote the scholarly view you are referring to in your answer, answers citing differences of opinion would be great.

I'd also regard this question as a kind of compendium to my former question:
What items are considered najis in fiqh?

  • The primary method of treating najasah is to wash it with water, that is valid according to consensus and valid for almost everything. Other than that there are probably around a dozen or so specific procedures for specific items, with differences of opinion, like scraping, drying, wiping, cutting, transforming, washing with other than water, tanning, diluting, draining etc. That may be one long answer. – UmH Aug 25 at 12:58
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+50

Washing is the primary method of purifying an item that has been soiled by filth.

However the following are alternate 'concessions' which are valid in the Hanafi madhab, the second and fourth are also valid in the Maliki madhab, while none of these are valid in the preferred view of the Shafi'i and Hanbali madhabs:

  • Mani when dried can be scratched off.

    عن عائشة: كنت أفرك المني من ثوب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا كان يابسا، وأغسله إذا كان رطبا

    Ayesha said: I used to scratch off mani from the clothes of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ if had dried and I washed it if it was moist.

    Sunan Daraqutni also see Muslim

  • Dried impurity which becomes a solid body (such as semen, blood, dung) on a boot can be scratched off on earth or wiped off.

    إذا جاء أحدكم إلى المسجد فلينظر: فإن رأى في نعليه قذرا أو أذى فليمسحه وليصل فيهما

    When any of you comes to the mosque, he should see; if he finds filth on his sandals, he should wipe it off and pray in them.

    Sunan Abi Dawud also see here

  • Land can be made pure by drying through sunlight or wind.

    ذكاة الأرض يبسها

    Purification of the earth is drying - (saying of Imam Baqir)

    al-Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah also see Bukhari

  • Polished metallic surfaces can be purified by wiping.

    لأن أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كانوا يقتلون الكفار بسيوفهم ثم يمسحونها ويصلون معها

    For the companions of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to kill the disbelievers with their swords and would then wipe them and pray with them.

    Radd al-Muhtar

References: Hidaya onwards, الموسوعة الفقهية onwards, الفقه الإسلامي وأدلته onwards

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  • How about leather? – Medi1Saif Oct 2 at 13:23
  • I've omitted tanning, istihala, purification of water sources etc. as I didn't find it too relevant.One can take a look at the the third reference which lists 18. – UmH Oct 2 at 13:25
  • @UmH I know how to read arabic. Is there a source in English for fiqh? if not I think we should work on that as people who can understand arabic (translated fiqh books). – IrbidMath Oct 5 at 15:03
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وَيُنَزِّلُ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً لِيُطَهِّرَكُمْ بِه [الأنفال:11].
and sent down upon you from the sky, rain by which to purify you. ِAl-Anfal (11)

قال النووي رحمه الله: ذكره سبحانه وتعالى امتناناً فلو حصلت الطهارة بغيره لم يحصل الامتنان به. انتهى.
Al Nawawi said: When Allah Gratitude on us with water the purify that means there is nothing we can use to purify without it.

وذهب أبو حنيفة وأبو يوسف وأحمد في رواية عنه، إلى جواز تطهير النجاسات بالماء وبكل مائع طاهر يمكن إزالتها به، كالخل وماء الورد ونحوهما مما إذا عصر انعصر،
Abu Hanefa and Abu Yousef and Ahmad in one way from him. They said we can purify with water and everything liquid and pure we can remove the Najasat with like Ginger and rose water and similar things which if we squeeze it squeezed.

Also Scholars who said it is ok to use other liquids is the hadeeth

وَعَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ إِذَا جَاءَ أَحَدُكُمْ اَلْمَسْجِدَ , فَلْيَنْظُرْ, فَإِنْ رَأَى فِي نَعْلَيْهِ أَذًى أَوْ قَذَرًا فَلْيَمْسَحْهُ , وَلْيُصَلِّ فِيهِمَا } أَخْرَجَهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ , وَصَحَّحَهُ اِبْنُ خُزَيْمَةَ 1‏

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: "When any of you comes to the mosque he should look and if he sees impurity on his sandals (shoes) he should wipe them and then pray in them." [Reported by Abu Dawud, and Ibn Khuzaimah graded it Sahih (authentic)].

ووجه الدلالة من هذا الحديث، أن إزالة النجاسة الحاصلة هنا، طهارة بغير الماء، فدل ذلك على عدم اشتراطه

How did they use the hadeeth is: if the najasah from shoes removed without a water thats an evidence is not necessary.

Am just copying and translating with my wording from the: https://www.islamweb.net/ar/fatwa/22555/%D9%87%D9%84-%D9%8A%D8%B5%D8%AD-%D8%AA%D8%B7%D9%87%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%A9-%D8%A8%D8%BA%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%A1

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  • This doesn't answer the actual question. It actually tries to show that using something else than water for taharah is correct. But this doesn't answer the given question as it is well known that there are other options, but water I want to know these options and when their usage is permissible. – Medi1Saif Oct 1 at 22:56
  • You did not read the whole thing! it says that it is ok to use liquids like venger water rose you said mention all opinions right? – IrbidMath Oct 2 at 2:14
  • Please try to understand the question first. Your answer is missing the topic and copy-paste answers are not what we look for. Try to add some explanation of yours. – Medi1Saif Oct 2 at 10:54
  • @Medi1Saif I have a question can you read arabic? if not and there is no source for this thing in English I think it is a Fard on Muslims to translate the books of Fiqh into english. – IrbidMath Oct 5 at 15:01
  • There are English translations of some books. – Medi1Saif Oct 5 at 15:03

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