I'm wondering why Allah swt gave powers to angels and jinns like teleporting to other places, and turning into animals or other things. But he did not granted us human beings those powers. Is there a specific reason for this?
Allah has given power to all of his creations
What do you mean by power ? The meaning of power can vary from anything from strength to electricity.
As I understand it , Allah has given power to all of us.
For this context, I will only take Jinn and Men, as angels are irrelevant as they have no free will. Allah has given different powers to men and jinn.
To Jinns He has given strength of the body
And to Men He has given intellect of the mind.
A man is more intelligence than a jinn. An adult Jinn is like a Human baby when it comes to intelligence. Jinns do stuff like Teleportation and Transfiguration by their Strength of Body .
Humans are the best of Allah's creations because we have a higher intelligence than Jinns so we can utilise our free will to a great extent. We have transformed the surface of the Earth ! Can Jinns build houses and buildings ? Can they build rockets and aeroplanes ?
Have you ever wondered why Iblis was jealous of Adam ? He was jealous because Adam was more intelligent than him! Adam may have had a far inferior body than that of Iblis but his intelligence was a thousand fold better!
When Allah created Adam, He taught him everything. Then Allah showed the angels,Iblis and Adam some objects. Allah asked them to tell the names of the objects. The angels didn't know ! Iblis didn't know! But Adam ( Ali ) did!
And that's why we are the best of Allah's creation !
Allah knows best.
There is no such thing as "power" without "knowledge". I am gonna use these Quranic verse to back my upcoming claims.
He said, 'O Council, which one of you will bring me her throne, before they come to me in surrender?' [Quran 27:38] An Ifrit of the jinns said, 'I will bring it to thee, before thou risest from thy place; I have strength for it [Quran 27:39] and I am trusty.' Said he who possessed knowledge of the Book, 'I will bring it to thee, before ever thy glance returns to thee.' Then, when he saw it settled before him, he said, 'This is of my Lord's bounty that He may try me, whether I am thankful or ungrateful. Whosoever gives thanks gives thanks only for his own soul's good, and whosoever is ungrateful -- my Lord is surely All-sufficient, All-generous.' [Quran 27:40] He said, 'Disguise her throne for her, and we shall behold whether she is guided or if she is of those that are not guided.' [Quran 27:41] So, when she came, it was said, 'Is thy throne like this?' She said, 'It seems the same.' 'And we were given the knowledge before her, and we were in surrender, [Quran 27:42]
It says in these verses that a strong Jinn said he was able to bring the throne of Queen of Sheeba before Suleiman (AS) gets up from his throne. On the other hand, a man, a human, who had knowledge from the scriptures said "I will bring it to you before the blink of your eye."
This man according to scholars was known as Asif Ibn Barkhiya, who was a Muslim but not a Prophet.
We learned from this Ayah that Allah blesses his certain servants with knowledge of certain things, that we normal people consider as Karamaat (Miracles, but done by a non-prophet). They don't get Wahih (direct revelation from Allah or his angels) but they simply discover the way to do it by the will and blessings of Allah.
So this proves that there is some knowledge not known to normal humans which do allow humans to do things far superior to Jinns, and are only given to either Prophets of Allah or his blessed servants.
However, the actual reason Jinns can do these things without any special knowledge sent to them from Allah is because they are solely energy, as mentioned by Allah that they are created by the purest fire. Energy can transform into any state, that is the reason Jinns can travel at higher speeds, are physically stronger than us.
On the other hand, humans are both, matter and energy, we have a defined state that we cannot bypass unless by the will of Allah and blessed knowledge from him.
As for the angels, they are not for comparison as they do not fall under the classifications of what can be explained by us, energy or matter. They are instead made by Noor (light) and we don't know much about the light that angels are made of BUT they act according to the commandments of Allah, they do exactly and specifically what Allah orders them to do, not more not less, so it would be clear that these "powers" and whatnot is provided to them directly by Allah to carry out whatever tasks they have been assigned with.
We, humans, are the best creation of Allah because Allah sent Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) among us. And Allah says in the Qur'an,
And We have not sent you but as mercy for all the worlds. [Quran 21:107]
If the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) is a mercy for all the worlds (Heavens, earth, Jinns, angels, mankind, all that Allah has made) then it must be that he would be the best of the creation, and this best of the creation is sent among humans.
If the best creation and mercy to all the worlds is sent amongst humans then humans are the best species.
At last, I would like to state what @MediSaif said, which is "Who are we to discuss the will of Allah?" he is far exalted above the understanding of human intellect, he is the all-wise all-knower.
Allah knows the best.
Allah wishes whomever he gives power. He gave some powers to the prophets. Humans and jinns have the freewill but the angels don't have that. Angels are 100% obliged to Allah. They don't have freewill. Humans are the best creation of Allah (SWT). If you do good deeds you are superior to other creations of Allah and if you do bad deeds you're inferior. Allah can give powers anyone he wills.