Allah said :
There are some who say: “We believe in Allah and in the Last Day,” while in fact they do not believe. (2:8)
Did Allah tell the prophet(PBUH) the name of those disbelievers?
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Yes, The prophet pbuh even informed hazrat Hudhaifa R. A about the hypocrite list. He was advised by the prophet pbuh to not disclose the list. There is a wisdom behind not disclosing the names i.e. they may get reformed and become believer if they are not publicly shamed.
After Muhammad (sal)'s death, the Khalifah often sought his advice concerning their activities but he remained tight-lipped. Umar (rali), during his Khilafat was only able to find out indirectly who the hypocrites were by monitoring Hudhayfah’s attendance at the funeral prayer following the death of a Muslim. If Hudhayfah did not attend Umar (rali) refrained from performing the funeral prayer for that person. Once Umar (rali) asked Hudhayfah if any of his governors was a munafiq. Hudhayfah told him that one was but declined to inform whom. Hudhayfah later said that shortly after their conversation Umar (rali) dismissed the person as if he had been guided to him.