This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah
So my question is why Allah said this is a guidance for muttaqeen when Quran is for all humanity?
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It is correct that the Quran is guidance for people in general. The evidence for that is that Allah says:
The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. [...] (2:185)
However, in the verse you quoted, Allah specifies that it is guidance for the Muttaqoon (God-conscious people). Why does he do that?
First, it should be noted that this is common in the Quran. The Quran (along with previous revelations like the Torah) is variously called guidance for believers, Muslims, doers of good, those of understanding, and those of certainty (in faith).
The reason this occurs can be attributed to the existence of two broad types of guidance:
The guidance that is argument and proof
The guidance of actual understanding and faith
The Quran is the first type of guidance to all people. It presents arguments and it conveys the truth and reality to us whether we believe or not.
However, to believers, the Quran is also the second type of guidance. Believers actually benefit from the first guidance of arguments and proof and come to believe in the Quran and follow God's commands in it.
Thus, it can be said that believers benefit from both types of guidance while the Quran is only the first type of guidance to non-believers.
The reason Allah mentions Muttaqoon in this verse as those who receive guidance is that he wants to emphasize the guidance of both kinds together. So, the people benefiting from the complete guidance of the Quran are mentioned.
Oki regarding the first part, the quran ehich came into the prophet was in the oral form, but Allah (swt) has also "al kitab al mahfoth" the seacred book, which is the quran. The secound part of the question, saying that this book is for the mottaqin doesnt mean that non muslims are not allowed to read it or wont get guided by it, no but the meaning of this verse is that the mottaqin are the ones that love this book the most. This is just like saying to your wife "your mine" out of love to her. You dont mean that she is yours and you own her, no you mean that the one who maybe you care about the most is she and the same thing here