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[1] It is a certain fact that the Earth orbits the Sun and the Earth rotates around its own axis. You can prove that from inside earth using a Foucault's pendulum.

[2] It is also a certain fact that the Moon and the Sun also have their own orbits.

[3] Ancient Muslim scholars agreed that Earth is stationary and the Sun and the Moon orbit the Earth. Even in 1983, Ibn Baz wrote his book to prove that the Earth is stationary while the Sun and the Moon are moving.

Note: when Muslim scholars mention the Sun's movement, they do not mean that the modern understanding of how the Sun is orbiting the Milky Way. No. They mean that the Earth is stationary and the Sun moves around the Earth and thus we have day and night.

[4] Contemporary Muslim scholars, especially the proponents of scientific miracles in the Quran, believe that the Quran does mention the Earth's movement and the strongest evidence they provide is verse 27:88. Note on that verse. That verse is clearly referring to judgment day.

The problem is: How could all ancient Muslim scholars (the linguists, the scientists, the mufasirs, etc) agree that the Earth is stationary? Clearly, their agreement comes from their understanding of Quranic verses and Hadiths.

There are many verses that clearly support the belief of the ancient Muslim scholars. Examples: 13:2, 27:61.

Some contemporary Muslims say that the Quran is not a science book. I agree. But the problem is not solved. We have ancient scholars understanding with clear evidence from the Quran that directly conflicts what we observe.

  • From my experience, the conclusions from the texts are based on the interpretation methodology of each scholar, also the context of their own understanding about the subject. This is for instance the case with Ibn Baz conclusions which I cannot say was a majority interpretation at that time. – Kilise Jun 23 at 19:43
  • @Kilise Muslim scholars have two major criteria: (1) the Quran, the Hadiths, and what the companions said and understood and (2) the Arabic language grammar. They do not interpret it from themselves. – Yousif Alazzawi Jun 23 at 20:07
  • Not sure why you can't understand that even the Quran and the ahadiths could be interpreted in different ways, it's basic human nature, and the proof of it is all different opinions out there... – Kilise Jun 23 at 20:17
  • @Kilise No you cannot interpret the Book however you want. There are rules you have to abide by. If I tell you a sentence, on what basis are you going to interpret? One obvious thing is grammar, how the words are used, context, etc. In our case we cannot interpret the verses and both interpretations be right. Either Earth moves or it does not. – Yousif Alazzawi Jun 23 at 20:26
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    Please provide evidences for your claims. Further I certainly agree with Kilise as even the sahabah in many cases held different opinions on how to interpret the qur'an and madhhabs wouldn't exist if all the peope would interpret both the qur'an and sunnah the same way, and take the views of the sahabh selectively. Note that both qur'ana and hadith offer many options for interpretation. – Jamila Jun 24 at 5:57
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The Quran not being a science book is quite relevant. What ancient scholars did, and what we still do, is to observe how the universe works and try to link that with the verses in the Quran that mention these things.

They thought the Earth was stationary and the sun and moon orbited it. That was the best science of the day. This statement of yours is a misunderstanding:

Clearly, their agreement comes from their understanding of Quranic verses and Hadiths.

Their agreement actually comes from the fact that the geocentric model was as "established science" to them as we consider the heliocentric model. For any, mufassir or scholar to interpret in any other way would have made the Quran go against science in that era.

Neither of the verses that you mention "clearly support" the geocentric model actually "clearly support" it. In fact, they are pretty vague and they only support it when you actually believe the geocentric model (which many ancient scholars did).

The first example you give:

It is Allah who erected the heavens without pillars that you [can] see; then He established Himself above the Throne and made subject the sun and the moon, each running [its course] for a specified term. He arranges [each] matter; He details the signs that you may, of the meeting with your Lord, be certain. (13:2)

To a geocentric person, this proves that the sun and moon are orbiting the earth. But for a modern person, the verse is just as well explained by the fact that everything in the sky is moving in orbits like the sun around the Milky Way.

The second example:

Is He [not best] who made the earth a stable ground and placed within it rivers and made for it firmly set mountains and placed between the two seas a barrier? Is there a deity with Allah ? [No], but most of them do not know. (27:61)

This verse may mean to a geocentric person that the Earth does not move. But, it is more likely that it simply means Earth is stable ground for humans even though it moves in actuality.

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  • 1.The imams of language and mufasirs do not appeal to the sciences of their times. They read the Quran according to the rules of tafsir. One rule is to interpret the Quran according to Arabic language grammar and rhetoric. 2. Did the companions of the Prophet understand from the Quran and from the Hadiths that the Earth is moving? Simply NO. – Yousif Alazzawi Jun 23 at 17:12
  • @YousifAlazzawi They don't appeal to the sciences, their understanding of the universe is simply a framework for them understanding the Quran. – The Z Jun 23 at 17:33
  • Then we agree. But in your first couple sentences this is what I understood from you. So, I said they do NOT appeal. – Yousif Alazzawi Jun 23 at 17:35
  • @YousifAlazzawi 2. You are right. Nothing in the Quran clearly indicates that. No verse says "the Earth is moving." – The Z Jun 23 at 17:37
  • @YousifAlazzawi What it means is that no mufassir would interpret something that went against well-known observations of how the universe worked. Neither then, nor now. – The Z Jun 23 at 17:40

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