The Caliphs conquered non-muslim lands who didn't speak arabic and I assume there must have been conversions during this time as well. So, did the friday khutbah take place in arabic there or was it in the local language?

For example: Umar RA conquest of Persia here

Caliph Umar ordered a full invasion of the Sasanian empire in 642, which led to the complete conquest of the Sasanians around 651.

According to here , Arabic was not a language in this empire

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    I wonder if the of extent of conversion during this early time was enough to fulfill the conditions for Jummah. The ruling is based on analogy, it would have have been simpler if the stance of the caliph\sahaba was known.
    – UmH
    Mar 12 '20 at 6:44
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    I don't think that the khutba was held in any other language as I don't know of a scholarly view of the early scholars saying otherwise. But a Friday prayer requires settlement. So an army on expedition would hardly pray more than the prayer of fear I'd assume.
    – Medi1Saif
    Mar 12 '20 at 7:49

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