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Is it legal under Sharia Law for a Muslim to take another Muslim to non-Sharia courts for remonstration?

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There isn't any room for non-Shariah courts under Shariah law, as there is prohibition and severe condemnation of using any other man-made law:

وأن احكم بينهم بما أنزل الله ولا تتبع أهواءهم

And judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations

Quran 5:49

ومن لم يحكم بما أنزل الله فأولئك هم الكافرون

And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the disbelievers.

Quran 5:44

A non-muslim judge (for example one who is appointed over Dhimmis in some of their internal matters, according to some madhabs) does not have any jurisdiction over a Muslim:

ولن يجعل الله للكافرين على المؤمنين سبيلا

And never will Allah give the disbelievers over the believers a way [to overcome them].

Quran 4:141

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