According to Sufi theology Godhood has three levels:

  • the first level: الأحدية, I don't know the accurate English translation of this term.
  • the second level: The Divine Names.
  • the third level: الأعيان الثابتة, The Fixed Essences.

Of course الأحدية has I, and is Entity.

Are each Divine Name and Fixed Essence Entity and has his own I?

  • 1
    Only a comment, As far as I can say the first level is the level of الهویة الغیبیة, which usually is stated as the level of لا اسم له و لا رسم له, although it has quite many other names as well; then the second level is the level of الأحدیت, and the last one is الواحدیت. The third level also is where الأعیان الثابتة appear. Up to the end of the third level, there is nothing but Allah the one, although even after creation (talking on top of definitions) still there is Allah and nothing else, according to the same set of beliefs (وحدت شخصیة، وحدت وجود و موجود).
    – owari
    Jan 17, 2020 at 22:43
  • @owari In my philosophical system, and according to my spiritual experience, الهوية الغيبية is the most apparent هي الأكثر ظهورًا ووضوحا and has surely Identity and Name and I. To me, all Godhood levels are ظهورات عينية. What we think as the most Batin باطن is the most apparent Zaher هو الأكثر ظهورا.
    – salah
    Jan 17, 2020 at 23:19
  • I just understood you mean the definite article alif lam (ال) by writing (l). Is that right? I couldn't understand you when you commented on my previous answer. You should also explain what you mean by 'entity.'
    – infatuated
    Jan 18, 2020 at 7:18
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    @infatuated I mean by (has I) له أنا. I mean by Entity كيان ،أى له هوية خاصة به.what I mean is: are the Divine Names and Fixed Essences Entities, having special Identities and (I)ies?
    – salah
    Jan 18, 2020 at 12:03

1 Answer 1


No, Allah has one identity and the attributes are just that: attributes. The names only describe His different attributes. It's like saying man has mind, imagination, power, life, dreams and wishes but he still has one identity.

To delve deeper, in Sufism, all attributes are non-existent compared to the Divine essence but rather they exist by the Divine essence existing. Think of the following statement:

Life exists.

The verb 'exist' according to Sufi theology represents the Divine essence, while the subject, 'life' is a property of existence/Divine essence. So things exist by the Divine essence existing. Or rather, they exist by Divine essence because existence and the Divine essence are one and the same thing. This is why they refer to Allah with the word حق which means 'real' and also why they refer to it with the word وجود meaning 'existence' or 'being.' Grasping this is really important. You'll learn that the attribute احدیه is a consequence of Allah construed as pure act of existing. That is, it is secondary to Allah being الحق, the real.

So ان الله هو الحق comes first, meaning "only Allah is real." Only = احد So by being real Allah is also only and alone because only He and He alone is real.

But then, how come other perceived things happen to existence if Allah alone is real? That's by Allah thinking Itself!

To see what it all means, comparisons to human soul is very useful as self-knowledge is the path to theology as a Prophetic hadith says.

So contemplate this: your thoughts exist only by the virtue of you existing. But they come only when you think them and when you don't they disappear but your being is still there and you're being is unitary احد and not multiple. But if you contemplate, even if you want to notice your own being, you have to think yourself, you have to be conscious. But if you transcend your mind and consciousness, you reach a state of as-if nothingness. You no longer even feel yourself or anything as if nothing exists. But this state is usually temporary in humans but it gives you a grasp of what the Divine essence or state of pure existence means which is ironically a state of as-if-nothingness. So existence and non-existence are one and the same thing epistemic-wise, in that it's a state that transcends every property or every 'thing' because it is a state that has no property, no feeling, no nothing by which you can describe it! As Sufis say and as @owari mentioned in his comment, the Divine essence ... لا اسم له و لا رسم له و لا ند له و لا ضد له و لا برهان له و. -- has no name and no sign or definition and no counterpart, and no opposite, and no evidence, and, I casually add, no nothing!

But once you let your thoughts and feelings emerge back, your attributes reveal themselves again, your mood, attitude, feeling, will, power, consciousness and so forth, they all come back. Therefore, as you see your attributes are secondary to your existence and wholly dependent on it and they also vaporize when you concentrate on your being alone, or your حق الأحدی; and gush out from your being when you allow your consciousness to come back. This is how everything emerges from as-if-nothing by self-consciousness.

Think of the Divine essence and attributes and essences in this vein. They all depend on the Divine essence and at the same time are nothing except the Divine essence, and all go back and disappear in the Divine essence.

کل من علیها فان و یبقی وجه ربک ذو الجلال و الأکرام

This was the essence of Wahdat al-Wujud, unity of existence in Sufi theology.

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