I will attempt to directly answer 3, which by implication I think answers 1, and I included one example fatwa for 4, and one possible explanation for the origin of the distaste for bells is presented.
Several relevant hadith can be found by searching sunnah.com with bells and satan and bell and angels.
I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: The angels do not enter a house in which there is a bell. Sunan Abi Dawud 4231 (hasan)
Angels do not accompany the travellers who have with them a dog and a bell. Sahih Muslim 2113 a
Abu Hurairah reported the Apostle of Allaah(ﷺ) as saying “The bell is a wooden wind musical instrument of Satan.” Sunan Abi Dawud 2556 (sahih)
I just chose a few representative hadith. See the search links above.
A relevant fatwa from IslamQA says (quoting from elsewhere I think)
The bells that are used in houses, schools and so on are permissible, so long as they do not include anything haraam, such as resembling the church bells of the Christians, or have musical sounds. In that case they are haraam for that reason.
An earlier source (mentioned in another online discussion here) describes a possible reason:
Ibn al-Athir says, “Bells were hanged on camels and other riding animals. Bells were then disliked (by the Prophet) as they make voices through which enemies would know about the coming of the Muslim army.
In other words, yes bells are seen as associated with Satan, and being used by Satan, and angels stay away from groups with bells. A possible reason for its origin is because they will alert the enemy to their army. I don't know how much this proposal is accepted. This belief would definitely explain why bells are not a decoration in a mosque and why there are not church bells in mosques, but use the call to prayer instead.