Does Islam have codified rules of honor and revenge/punishment in the general sense of personal honor.
I am not interested in this question in the specific and sensationalised issue of "honor killings" of females who fornicate.
I am specifically interested in cases where someone abuses another's honor, such as insulting him in public, telling him to "F*** his mother", or spitting in his face, is he allowed to revenge? And to what extent is he allowed to revenge? If he struck someone for an insult would that be violating Islamic law? Is he allowed to say the same insults back?
The Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: "Truly your blood, your property, and your honor are inviolable." Narrated in Saheeh Al-Bukhari, #1739, and Mosnad Ahmad, #2037.
42:40 And the retribution for an evil act is an evil one like it, but whoever pardons and makes reconciliation - his reward is [due] from Allah . Indeed, He does not like wrongdoers.
I know for killing there is Qiṣāṣ (قصاص) and for other transgressions there is hadd (حد)/Hudud (حدود), but would the issue of personal honor, insult and revenge fall under ta'zir (تعزير) offences in Islamic Jurisprudence?
Addition: Abdullah Bin Ubayy, leader of the Munafiq, was not punished for the slander of Aisha I think, but Mistah Bin Osase, Hassan Bin Sabbit and Khamme Binti Jahsh, who went too far with the slander, were flogged with a hundred stripes each (Seerah, 3:315; Musnad, 6:35).