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Does Islam have codified rules of honor and revenge/punishment in the general sense of personal honor.

I am not interested in this question in the specific and sensationalised issue of "honor killings" of females who fornicate.

I am specifically interested in cases where someone abuses another's honor, such as insulting him in public, telling him to "F*** his mother", or spitting in his face, is he allowed to revenge? And to what extent is he allowed to revenge? If he struck someone for an insult would that be violating Islamic law? Is he allowed to say the same insults back?

The Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: "Truly your blood, your property, and your honor are inviolable." Narrated in Saheeh Al-Bukhari, #1739, and Mosnad Ahmad, #2037. 

42:40 And the retribution for an evil act is an evil one like it, but whoever pardons and makes reconciliation - his reward is [due] from Allah . Indeed, He does not like wrongdoers.

I know for killing there is Qiṣāṣ (قصاص‎) and for other transgressions there is hadd (حد)/Hudud (حدود), but would the issue of personal honor, insult and revenge fall under ta'zir (تعزير) offences in Islamic Jurisprudence?

Addition: Abdullah Bin Ubayy, leader of the Munafiq, was not punished for the slander of Aisha I think, but Mistah Bin Osase, Hassan Bin Sabbit and Khamme Binti Jahsh, who went too far with the slander, were flogged with a hundred stripes each (Seerah, 3:315; Musnad, 6:35).

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    That depends on the nature of the insult. Some abuses could carry the Hadd of slander. Otherwise a Ta'zir punishment would apply. Qisas may also be taken personally although that is not preferable according to some schools. Where Qisas is taken it means retaliation in kind, the revenge must be the same as the offense. – UmH Nov 17 '19 at 12:38
  • @UmH Thank you. For example, is there an established Hadd punishment for slander in any of the Madhabs? – Johan88 Nov 17 '19 at 17:33
  • @UmH Also, It seems from Wikipedia that Qisas is limited to "murder, bodily damage, or property damage", and not to honor and insult. – Johan88 Nov 17 '19 at 17:39
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    This hadith is relevant for taking of qisas\revenge for an insult. The Hadd for accusation of Zina is in the Quran in 24:4. A slander which does not fulfill the conditions of the hadd can be punished with a Ta'zir. – UmH Nov 18 '19 at 8:50
  • @UmH Thanks so much. That's hadith is great for assigning guilt. Do you have any hadith or fiqh regarding the qisas/revenge that may be taken? And can the individual take it himself or must he act through some established authority? – Johan88 Nov 18 '19 at 9:23

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