The short answer is: We're equal in some senses, but also different in many.
لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ Allah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity.
Meaning each soul has a certain capacity.
Even for a single person has different capacities at different times:
Our abilities change by: age, health, hunger, mental status, location, etc.
Other than the above verse, two keywords come to mind. If you search in Qur'an you'll find multiple examples:
الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ
Men are the maintainers of women for that Allah has preferred in
bounty one of them over another
وَاللَّهُ فَضَّلَ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فِي الرِّزْقِ ۚ فَمَا الَّذِينَ فُضِّلُوا بِرَادِّي رِزْقِهِمْ عَلَىٰ مَا مَلَكَتْ
أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِيهِ سَوَاءٌ ۚ أَفَبِنِعْمَةِ اللَّهِ
Allah has bestowed His gifts of sustenance more freely on some of you
than on others: those more favoured are not going to throw back their
gifts to those whom their right hands possess, so as to be equal in
that respect. Will they then deny the favours of Allah?
And many more verses.