If someone is doing sins (whatever the level) but in same time keeping Praying 5 times per day, and being a good person, this person still have Hassanats from good things done ?
Or is it like mathematics : -1 + 1 = 0 ?
Are deeds like Maths?
We don't exactly know how deeds are counted at least we have no clear values or an expiation catalogue like:
deed x = 10 hassanaat (if done in situation A)
deed x = 5 hassanaat (if done in situation B)
deed x = 100 hasanaat (if done in situation C)
deed y = 3 sins (…)
deed z = 1 hassanah (…)
So the matter can't be described via a mathematical approach as we have no knowledge and no exact tools for comparing nor solving the issue.
On the complexity of the deeds/repentance "equation"
But we know that all our deeds are counted and registered you may read for instance:
And [for] every person We have imposed his fate upon his neck, and We will produce for him on the Day of Resurrection a record which he will encounter spread open. (13)
[It will be said], "Read your record. Sufficient is yourself against you this Day as accountant." (17:13-14)
So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it, (7)
And whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it. (99:7-8)
And furthermore Allah multiply our good deeds, read for example:
Who is it that would loan Allah a goodly loan so He may multiply it for him many times over? And it is Allah who withholds and grants abundance, and to Him you will be returned. (2:245)
The example of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is like a seed [of grain] which grows seven spikes; in each spike is a hundred grains. And Allah multiplies [His reward] for whom He wills. And Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing. (2:261)
some ahadith quote factors, but it is safer to say we don't know how and when these factors apply.
And Allah is all forgiving read for example:
Say, "O My servants who have transgressed against themselves [by sinning], do not despair of the mercy of Allah . Indeed, Allah forgives all sins. Indeed, it is He who is the Forgiving, the Merciful." (39:53)
By sincere repentance we can reach a level of clearing our former sins. This applies more for sins we do between us and Allah, while sins were other people are involved require asking for forgiveness from them.
It is therefore important for believers to stay in between the two states:
As else we would transgress and sin.
And we should have in mind the example given by our prophet () in his answer to his own question:
Do you know who is poor?
They (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) said: A poor man amongst us is one who has neither dirham with him nor wealth.
He (the Holy Prophet) said: The poor of my Umma would be he who would come on the Day of Resurrection with prayers and fasts and Zakat but (he would find himself bankrupt on that day as he would have exhausted his funds of virtues) since he hurled abuses upon others, brought calumny against others and unlawfully consumed the wealth of others and shed the blood of others and beat others, and his virtues would be credited to the account of one (who suffered at his hand). And if his good deeds fall short to clear the account, then his sins would be entered in (his account) and he would be thrown in the Hell-Fire. (Sahih Muslim)
Some evidences on what sins that may lead to a rejection or invalidation of our good deeds
Hypocrisy and disbelief:
Say, "Spend willingly or unwillingly; never will it be accepted from you. Indeed, you have been a defiantly disobedient people." (53)
And what prevents their expenditures from being accepted from them but that they have disbelieved in Allah and in His Messenger and that they come not to prayer except while they are lazy and that they do not spend except while they are unwilling. (9:53-54)
Sinning intentionally and persisting in sins:
And those who, when they commit an immorality or wrong themselves [by transgression], remember Allah and seek forgiveness for their sins - and who can forgive sins except Allah ? - and [who] do not persist in what they have done while they know. (3:135)
Raising the voice above the voice of the prophet ()
O you who have believed, do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet or be loud to him in speech like the loudness of some of you to others, lest your deeds become worthless while you perceive not. (49:2)
Some scholars considered this verse an evidence that shows that some bad deeds may make some good deeds worthless! A further evidence are the verses (2:264-266) which can also be entitled as:
Rya' (showing off) and reminders and injury invalidate charity:
O you who have believed, do not invalidate your charities with reminders or injury as does one who spends his wealth [only] to be seen by the people and does not believe in Allah and the Last Day. (2:264)
Leaving 'Asr prayer or prayer in general:
We were with Buraida in a battle on a cloudy day and he said, "Offer the 'Asr prayer early as the Prophet said, "Whoever leaves the 'Asr prayer, all his (good) deeds will be annulled." (Sahih al-Bukhari)
Declaring that Allah will pardon or punish somebody without knowledge:
Jundub reported that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) stated that a person said:
Allah would not forgive such and such (person). Thereupon Allah the Exalted and Glorious, said: Who is he who adjures about Me that I would not grant pardon to so and so; I have granted pardon to so and so and blotted out his deeds (who took an oath that I would not grant pardon to him). (Sahih Muslim)
Also Allah says:
O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and do not invalidate your deeds. (47:33)
which is an evidence that there are bad deeds that can invalidate good deeds.
The different views of scholars about whether or not a sin can cancel our good deeds
Scholars hold two different views on the matter:
The first view is that bad deeds do not cancel out good deeds, rather good deeds are the ones that cancel out bad deeds, by the grace and bounty and kindness of Allaah.
Al-Qurtubi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Jaami’ li Ahkaam al-Qur’aan (3/295):
The correct 'aqeedah is that bad deeds do not cancel out good deeds. End quote.
The second view is that sins and innovations may cancel out the reward for good deeds as a form of punishment. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah attributed this view to the majority of Ahl al-Sunnah. See Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (10/322). (islamqa #81874)
Therefore we should repent and do good after we realize having sinned and as our beloved prophet () advised us to do:
"The Messenger of Allah said to me: 'Have Taqwa of Allah wherever you are, and follow an evil deed with a good one to wipe it out, and treat the people with good behavior." (Jami' at-Tirmidhi)
Some related posts:
wish you find it well ofcourse sinning not canceling good things we did?
الجواب: جاء في الأحاديث الصحيحة قريب من هذا، يقول النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام: من قال حين يصبح وحين يمسي: سبحان الله وبحمده مائة مرة غفرت خطاياه وإن كانت مثل زبد البحر (Source)
who say : Great Allah and thank him 1 hundred time when you morning and at night all your sinning will be deleted if it was like sea
and also it is not a mathematics , if you Great Allah and did a good things , you will increase your Good deeds