Simple answer? Don't.
And it has already come down to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah [recited], they are denied [by them] and ridiculed; so do not sit with them until they enter into another conversation. Indeed, you would then be like them. Indeed Allah will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in Hell all together
And when you see those who engage in [offensive] discourse concerning Our verses, then turn away from them until they enter into another conversion. And if Satan should cause you to forget, then do not remain after the reminder with the wrongdoing people.
Why are you letting disbelievers tell you what is or is not a good example, instead of putting your faith in Allah and His messenger? Why are you letting yourself be drawn into arguments on sociology or sexual health or cosmology or quantum mechanics or whatever when you are not knowledgeable in any of those fields?
Providing references in a variety of fields may make their arguments look more compelling, but without a firm understanding of the fields involved and/or the critical skills required to identify common fallacies, it's very easy to misinterpret them. In fact, many of these fields are so complex that even people with a firm understanding and critical skills know better than to take any evidence or opinion at face value, and especially not as the only valid interpretation.
If you're not knowledgeable in the fields involved, be they scientific or religious, you shouldn't be jumping to conclusions, and especially not when those conclusions are the ones that the disbelievers want you to jump to. In fact you shouldn't be letting disbelievers teach your own religion to you at all, when their goal is just to spread their own disbelief rather than to spread knowledge.
Instead of arguing without knowledge, you should just be leaving them to their disbelief. If you want to strengthen yourself in the face of such questions in the future, studying the relevant fields (be they religion or science) with the guidance of a knowledgeable teacher whose goal is spreading knowledge will fare you much better than just trusting whatever these disbelievers tell you. That way, the next time someone tries to engage you in such an argument you'll be able to defend yourself from a foundation of firm knowledge and understanding instead of ignorance while your opponent controls the discussion.