I am asking for this specific hadith:
یحدث ھشام بن عروۃ قال دخلت جاریة علی عائشة وفی رجلھا جلاجل فی الخلخال فقالت عائشة اخرجوا عنی مفرقة الملائکة.
A similar report
There's a similar narration in Sunan abi Dawod:
Bunanah, female client of 'Abd al-Rahman b. Hayyan al-Ansari told that when she was with 'Aishah a girl wearing little tinkling bells was brought in to her. She ordered that they were not to bring her in where she was unless they cut off her little bells. She said:
I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: The angels do not enter a house in which there is a bell.
The report in "al-Mosannaf" of 'Abdurrazzaq as-Sana'ani
As for the narration from Mosannaf 'Abdurrazzaq (from Sana'a) عبد الرزاق بن همام الصنعاني you've stated it is strictly speaking not a hadith as Ma'amar reports a conversation of Hisham ibn 'Urwa with somebody else reporting that an event which happened to 'Aishah ():
19699 أخبرنا عبد الرزاق ، عن معمر ، قال : سمعت رجلا يحدث هشام بن عروة ، قال : دخلت جارية على عائشة وفي رجلها جلاجل في الخلخال ، فقالت عائشة : " أخرجوا عني مفرقة الملائكة
(Sources: islamweb and also as hadith #20607 page 446 here or hadith #19699 page 459 here with the editorial of al-Azami)
So 'Abdurrazzaq reported from Ma'amar (ibn Rashid) who reported the discussion between 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr and a not named person. That's the narrator chain of this report.
'Abdurrzzaq compiled this hadith as the second narration prohibiting the use of bells (the first actually is similar to that of abu Dawod the last is a weak report as Ma'amar just reports that he heard that the prophet () prohibited the use of bells for horses) usually hadith books are compiled with the intention that in each chapter the strongest hadith appears first, but the book of 'Aburrazzaq is not one that scholars have commented much so I'm not sure about the arrangement etc..
None of the editors and publishers of al-Mosannaf (which is actually the only book that complies this narration) clarifies whether Hisham ibn 'Urwa or his interlocutor who reported the event to the other. So it seems that Ma'amar was not able to say which of both reported to the other.
In fact Hisham ibn 'Urwa هشام بن عروة(61-146 a.H.) in best case counts as a young tabi'y so he can't have met 'Aishah () himself as he was only born 2-3 years after she passed away. He usually reported from his father 'Urwa ibn az-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam.
Note that Hisham ibn 'Urwa basically is considered as a trustworthy hadith narrator, but imam Malik and other contemporary scholars said after he came from 'iraq he started to falsely attribute ahadith to his father which makes his hadith narrations from this time on doubtful.
As for Ma'amar ibn Rashid معمر بن راشد(95-153 a.H.) the reporter of the conversation (and teacher of 'Abdurrazzaq) between the two men he started his studies in the year al-Hassan al-Basri died (110 a.H.) and when he reached Yemen the people held and settled him by marrying him so he died there and he was the first to compile hadith there.
Ma'amar is also widely considered as a trustworthy hadith narrator, but except with his narrations from az-Zuhri and ibn Tawus all his reports from people from 'Iraq are considered as doubtful. In his siyar 'Alam an-Nubala' imam a-Dhahabi also reports the following statement:
In the following I'm translating from Arabic as these translations are of my own take them carefully!
قال ابن أبي خيثمة : سمعت ابن معين يقول : إذا حدثك معمر عن العراقيين ، فخافه إلا عن ابن طاوس ، والزهري ، فإن حديثه عنهما مستقيم ، فأما أهل الكوفة والبصرة فلا وما عمل في حديث الأعمش شيئا ، وحديثه عن ثابت وعاصم وهشام بن عروة مضطرب كثير الأوهام .
Ibn abi KHaythama reported: I've heard ibn Ma'yn saying: If Ma'amar reported to you from the Iraqi people be fearful except with (reports from) ibn Tawus and az-Zuhri, his hadith from both is straight (correct). As for the the people of al-Kufa and Basra1 "no", he didn't make much of the hadith of al-'Amash and his reports from Thabit and 'Assim2 and Hisham ibn 'Urwa is disturbed and has a lot of fantasies.
1: Ma'amar was born there so he started his studies in al-Basra.
2: 'Assim: is the known qari' of al-Kufa 'Assim ibn abi an-Nujud, which riwaya: Hafs from 'Assim is by now the most prevalent in the Muslim world.
This shows that Ma'amar met Hisham ibn 'Urwa in al-'Iraq not in Medina (Hisham's hometown one may say).
So as you see the report in al-Mosannaf has several issues:
the last point indicates that Ma'amar was not able to say which of both conversation partners actually reported to the other and he was not able to complete the chain this is not really a big issue for a hadith report.
Reports of Ma'amar from Hisham ibn 'Urwa especially and from 'Iraq in general are doubtful or even rejected.
The interpretation of the hadith
As for the interpretation scholars say it is permissible for a woman to wear an anklet as long as she doesn't show it to foreign men. See for example in the fatwa islamqa #260881 or islamweb #3427 (both in Arabic). As Allah the almighty says:
And let them not stamp their feet to make known what they conceal of their adornment. And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed. (24:31)