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The ashhur al-Hurum الاشهر الحرم or (four) sacred months (Dhu-l-Qi'adah, Dhu-l-Hijjah, Moharram and Rajab) are well defined in the qur'an and sunnah:

  • Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [who fear Him]. (9:36)

  • The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Time has come back to its original state which it had when Allah created the Heavens and the Earth; the year is twelve months, four of which are sacred. Three of them are in succession; Dhul-Qa'da, Dhul-Hijja and Al-Muharram, and (the fourth being) Rajab Mudar (named after the tribe of Mudar as they used to respect this month) which stands between Jumada (ath-thani) and Sha'ban." (Sahih al-Bukhari)

It is said that during these months we should carefully observe our deeds be it good ones or bad ones (due to the verse mentioned above) saying:

"so do not wrong yourselves during them."

further scholars often said that the rewards for good deeds get multiplied and the retribution of misdeeds too. Is there a concrete evidence for that?

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Malik said that he had heard that Said ibn al-Musayyab and Sulayman ibn Yasar were asked, "Does one deal more harshly in taking the blood-money in the sacred month?" They said, "No. But it is increased in it because of violating the month." It was said to Said, "Does one increase for the wound as one increases for the life?" He said, "Yes." Malik added, "I think that they meant the same as what Umar ibn al-Khattab did with respect to the blood-money of the Mudliji when he struck his son." (i.e. giving 120 camels instead of 100). (https://muflihun.com/malik/43/10)

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: “If I live until next year, I will fast the ninth day (of Muharram) too.” (https://muflihun.com/ibnmajah/7/1736)

Abu Qatadah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) was asked about observing As-Saum (the fast) on the tenth day of Muharram, and he replied, "It is an expiation for the sins of the preceding year."

[Muslim]. (riyadussaliheen/9/262)

Abu Hurairah narrated that:

Allah's Messenger (S) said: "The most virtuous fasting after the month of Ramadan is that of Allah's month of Al-Muharram. And the most virtuous Salat after the obligatory is the night prayer." (https://muflihun.com/tirmidhi/2/438)

Abu Haraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: The most excellent fast after Ramadan is God's month al-Muharram, and the most excellent prayer after what is prescribed is prayer during the night. (https://muflihun.com/muslim/6/2611)

Imran b. Husain (Allah be pleased with them) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace he upon him) having said to him or to someone else: Did you fast in the middle of Sha'ban? He said: No. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: If you did not observe fast, then you should observe fast for two days. (https://muflihun.com/muslim/6/2607)

It was narrated from Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: “Allah looks down on the night of the middle of Sha’ban and forgives all His creation, apart from the idolater and the Mushahin.” Another chain from Abu Musa, from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) with similar wording. (https://muflihun.com/ibnmajah/5/1390)

Narrated 'Imran bin Husain:

The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) asked a man: Did you fast the last day of Sha'ban ? He replied: No. He said: If you did not observe a fast, you must fast for a day. One of the two narrators said: For two days. (https://muflihun.com/abudawood/14/2321)

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:

The month most liked by the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) for fasting was Sha'ban. He then joined it with Ramadan. (https://muflihun.com/abudawood/14/2425)

It was narrated that Aishah said:

"The Messenger of Allah did not fast in any month of the year more than he did in Shaban. He used to fast all of Shaban." (nasai/22/2182)

Usamah bin Zaid said:

"I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, I do not see you fasting any month as much as Shaban.' He said: 'That is a month to which people do not pay much attention, between Rajab and Ramadan. It is a month in which the deeds are taken up to the Lord of the worlds, and I like that my deeds be taken up when I am fasting."' (nasai/22/2359)

Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

At Mina, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, "Do you know what is the day today?" The people replied, "Allah and His Apostle know it better." He said, "It is the forbidden (sacred) day. And do you know what town is this?" They replied, "Allah and His Apostle know it better." He said, "This is the forbidden (Sacred) town (Mecca). And do you know which month is this?" The people replied, "Allah and His Apostle know it better." He said, "This is the forbidden (sacred) month." The Prophet added, "No doubt, Allah made your blood, your properties, and your honor sacred to one another like the sanctity of this day of yours in this month of yours in this town of yours." Narrated Ibn 'Umar: On the Day of Nahr (10th of Dhul-Hijja), the Prophet stood in between the Jamrat during his Hajj which he performed (as in the previous Hadith) and said, "This is the greatest Day (i.e. 10th of Dhul-Hijjah)." The Prophet started saying repeatedly, "O Allah! Be Witness (I have conveyed Your Message)." He then bade the people farewell. The people said, "This is Hajjat-al-Wada)." (bukhari/26/798)

Narrated Abu Bakra:

The Prophet said, "The two months of 'Id i.e. Ramadan and Dhul-Hijja, do not decrease (in superiority)." (bukhari/31/136)

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The Prophet said, "No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these (first ten days of Dhul Hijja)." Then some companions of the Prophet said, "Not even Jihad?" He replied, "Not even Jihad, except that of a man who does it by putting himself and his property in danger (for Allah's sake) and does not return with any of those things." (bukhari/15/86)

It was narrated from Hunaidah bin Khalid, from his wife, from one of the wives of the Prophet, that:

the Messenger of Allah used to fast nine days of Dhul-Hijjah, the day of 'Ashura', and three days of each month: The first Monday of the month, and two Thursday. (nasai/22/2419)

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: “There are no days in this world during which worship is more beloved to Allah, Glorious is He, than the (first) ten days (of Dhul- Hijjah). Fasting one of these days is equivalent to fasting for one year, and one night of them is equal to Lailatul-Qadr.” (ibnmajah/7/1728)

  • Ramadan is not a sacred month! You've missed the topic! – Medi1Saif May 20 at 8:17

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