I do not think there is really something as specific as "virtuous profession" in Islam. I wil say, more precisely, from an Islamic perspective, the intention of doing a profession is what matters in Islam.
Mention is made in Quran about the reason Allah created mankind through the verse:
"And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship
Me."(Chapter 51, Verse 56)
Since our profession consumes a major part of our life, it is important for us to align our profession to the worship of Allah. Being consciously obedient to Allah forms part of worshiping Allah.
For example, a medical practitioner can see it as taking care of the human beings while a security officer can see it as ensuring the safely of people. It can be as simple as earning money in halal way and ensuring that one fully invest oneself to ensure that the salary is halal.
Also, an important part of profession is humbleness. We should not, because we do something better or because we are better qualified or have a higher authority cultivate arrogance. We should be just and fair with our colleagues.
I believe that in Islam, aligning our profession to worshiping Allah either directly or indirectly while being just and humble in what we do make our profession virtuous.