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As we know that travelling a distance of 52 km than you have to perform Qasr. But what is does the sharia says about this?

  • First if you mean the qasr distance the value 52 km is not agreed upon (some scholars have quoted a value of >80 km). It might be according the view of some sect(s) which you haven't quoted. The rulings scholars agreed upon and apply are on the basis of shari'a (fiqh is the application in practical issues) this make your question unclear? Do you think that any scholar would willingly oppose to Allah's ruling (shari'a)? – Medi1Saif Nov 7 '18 at 10:25
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There's no difference whether you travel by air, by land or by sea the ruling of qasr stays the same as Allah says:

And when you travel throughout the land, there is no blame upon you for shortening the prayer, [especially] if you fear that those who disbelieve may disrupt [or attack] you. Indeed, the disbelievers are ever to you a clear enemy. (4:101)

Even if scholars may differ about the distance or duration that is qualified for the validity of qasr. Almost all of them are in consensus that once one has started his travel and left behind him the buildings of the place of departure of such a travel praying qasr is permissible. This is based on ahadith such as:

  • When the Messenger of' Allah (ﷺ) had covered a distance of three miles or three farsakh (Shu'ba, one of the narrators, had some doubt about it) he observed two rak'ahs. (See for example in Sahih Muslim)

  • The Prophet (ﷺ) offered a four-rak'at Zuhr prayer at Medina and then offered a two rak'at 'Asr prayer at Dhul-Hulaifa and I heard the companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) reciting Talbiya aloud (for Hajj and 'Umra) altogether. (See for example in Sahih al-Bukhari)

Note that already the verse quoted at the beginning can be used as a reference for that.

You may also read in imam an-Nawawi's al-Majmo':

Our view is that when he has passed beyond the buildings of the town, he may shorten his prayers, but he should not shorten them before passing them, even if he has left his house. This is the view of Maalik, Abu Haneefah, Ahmad and the majority of scholars. Ibn al-Mundhir narrated from al-Haarith ibn Rabee’ah that he wanted to travel and he led them in praying two rak'ahs in his house. Among them was al-Aswad ibn Yazeed and another of the companions of Ibn Mas’ood. He said: And we narrated something similar from ‘Ata’ and Sulaymaan ibn Moosa. He said: and Mujaahid said: The traveller should not shorten his prayers during the day until night comes. Ibn al-Mundhir said: We do not know of anyone who agreed with him. Al-Qaadi Abu’l-Tayyib and others narrated that Mujaahid said: If he sets out during the day he should not shorten his prayers until night comes, and if he sets out at night he should not shorten his prayers until day comes. And it was narrated that ‘Ata’ said: When he has passed beyond the walls of his house, he may shorten his prayers. These two views are incorrect. The view of Mujaahid is contrary to the saheeh ahaadeeth which state that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) shortened his prayers in Dhu’l-Hulayfah when he left Madeenah. And the view of ‘Ata’ and those who agree with him is contrary to the idea of travelling. End quote. (Source islamqa #69816)

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