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Can the latter part of the verse,

"And indeed, we or you are either upon guidance or in clear error," (34:24)

carry the meaning that both parties are wrong? It is clear that both parties cannot be both right; however, they both can be wrong. But, what I can see is that the possibility is not considered. Surah Saba verse 24.

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No the verse says that one of either sides must be wrong as both can't be true so the "or" here is an exclusive one which doesn't accept both to be true.

In the context of this verse or more exactly in the verses mentioned before Allah () shows off a lot of the thoughts of the disbelievers He showed for example that once they invoke Allah when they in need, so He challenged them to invoke the other deities instead if they think they are true, He also showed and made clear that He accepts no intercession. And He showed hat they actually believed that what Allah said is the truth and that all their provision is from Allah. Nevertheless they kept their deities.

Ibn Kathir addresses this verse saying:

Allah tells us that He is unique in His power of creation and His giving of provision, and that He is unique in His divinity also. As they used to admit that no one in heaven or on earth except Allah gave them provision, i.e., by sending down water and causing crops to grow, so they should also realize that there is no god worthy of worship besides Him.

(And verily, (either) we or you are rightly guided or in plain error.)
"One of the two sides must be speaking falsehood, and one must be telling the truth. There is no way that you and we could both be following true guidance, or could both be misguided. Only one of us can be correct, and we have produced the proof of Tawhid which indicates that your Shirk must be false." Allah says:

(And verily, (either) we or you are rightly guided or in plain error.)
Qatadah said, "The Companions of Muhammad said this to the idolators: "By Allah, we and you cannot be following the same thing, only one of us can be truly guided."
'Ikrimah and Ziyad bin Abi Maryam said, "It means: we are rightly guided and you are in plain error." (Source qtafsir)

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