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We know that except for Prophet Muhammed (SAW), other Prophets were sent only for a specific time or to a particular community or location.

Given that the shariah for the different Prophets might have been similar but not identical, did other ummahs have a different Qibla at the same period in history?

For example, is it possible that the Qibla for Bani Israel was in Jerusalem while at the same moment it was in say South America for people of Latin America?

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Actually in Prophet Muhammed (SAW) era the Qibla was towards Al-Aqsa mosque (in Palestine) before being changed to the Qabba

قَدْ نَرَىٰ تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنْتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ

We have certainly seen the turning of your face, [O Muhammad], toward the heaven, and We will surely turn you to a qiblah with which you will be pleased. So turn your face toward al-Masjid al-Haram. And wherever you [believers] are, turn your faces toward it [in prayer]. Indeed, those who have been given the Scripture well know that it is the truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.

so it is so normal if every ummah in every era had their own Qibla since it is actually changed within one ummah's time. BUT despite we know that other ummahs were praying as mentioned in the Quran

( رَبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنْتُ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِنْدَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ رَبَّنَا لِيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ) إبراهيم / 37

Our Lord, I have settled some of my descendants in an uncultivated valley near Your sacred House, our Lord, that they may establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grateful.

( وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا ) مريم / 31

And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive

( فَنَادَتْهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَهُوَ قَائِمٌ يُصَلِّي فِي الْمِحْرَابِ )آل عمران / 39

So the angels called him while he was standing in prayer in the chamber, "Indeed, Allah gives you good tidings of John, confirming a word from Allah and [who will be] honorable, abstaining [from women], and a prophet from among the righteous."

we don't actually know how did they pray exactly and what was the form of their prayer and if they even had Qibla!,, You can check this and this to know more about how was the prayers before islam

But I don't think that Allah mentioned somewhere in the Quran or sunna if every ummah had Qibla or not and what was it so may be not all ummahs had Qibla when they pray.

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    Salam and welcome to IslamSE. This answer could profit from some evidences supporting your claim. – Medi1Saif Jan 29 at 6:38

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