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Assalamwalikum,
I made a promise to Allah and I also said him that if I broke my promise I will fail in exam. And by mistake I broke my promise, and now I am afraid, i can't be able to concentrate on my studies, i asked my friends and family they told me to give kaffarah. They told me to feed ten poor people. My question is :-

  1. So can I distribute packet of biscuit among ten poor people?, will it be considered as kaffarah?
  2. And can u give me the details information about kaffarah, and
  3. How can I repent to Allah for not fulfilling my promise.

Help me

  • Salam and welcome to IslamSE the Q&A site about Islam. To learn more about our site and model consider taking the tour and checking our help center. See also this relevant post What is the difference between fidyah الفدية and kaffarah الكفارة? – Medi1Saif Aug 30 '18 at 5:31
  • Before speaking about kaffarah you need to clarfy: Was this a promise (maybe a vow?) like: "I'll do such and such", or an oath: "By Allah I'll do such and such". Kaffarah is prescribed for oaths also one must clearfy whether paying a kaffarah is necessary in case one has broken an oath by mistake. And finally the kaffarah is based on levels of ability in 5:89. – Medi1Saif Aug 30 '18 at 5:38
  • Uma mam I have to feed them twice in a day or only once in day. – Disha Aug 30 '18 at 8:31
  • One meal is sufficient if it is equal to the average meal(s), most scholars said one must give a lunch and dinner (maybe it was a custom?), and it is not recommended to feed ten people at a time but give ten people the same amount of food, but maybe your due actually is fasting three days if any. I assume that you may even feed one person ten days etc. But so far you haven't answered my comment to clarify and focus your question! – Medi1Saif Aug 30 '18 at 11:09
  • Medi1Saif by saying wallahi i said I will not do such and such but I did it , and I also said to allah if I break my promise I will fail in exam, 2) is it necessary for a person to be muslim to whom i will pay kaffarh. – Disha Aug 31 '18 at 11:59
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Kaffara (expiation) for breaking an oath or vow is detailed in the Quran:

فكفارته إطعام عشرة مساكين من أوسط ما تطعمون أهليكم أو كسوتهم أو تحرير رقبة فمن لم يجد فصيام ثلاثة أيام

Its expiation is to feed ten poor persons at an average of what you feed your family with, or to clothe them, or to free a slave. However, if someone cannot afford, he has to fast for three days.

Quran 5:89

You can choose between freeing a slave, giving clothing to ten people or feeding them. If you can genuinely not afford any of these, then you can fast for three consecutive days.

Since you've specifically asked about the nature of food given for Kaffara, I will limit my answer to that.

Note that the description of the type and quantity of the food in the Quran is:

أوسط ما تطعمون أهليكم

the average of that which you feed your [own] families

Which means that it should neither be meager nor very excessive. Rather it should be an average meal of normal quality that will sate a hungry person and which you would eat in everyday routine.

Quantity of food:

  • According to the Hanafis and Malikis it is adequate to feed each needy persons two meals (such as breakfast and dinner) so that they eat their fill. This is the average (أوسط) amount of meals in a day.

  • The same ten people must be given both meals. You can not give one meal to one person and the next meal to another person who didn't eat the first meal. This is to satisfy the minimum amount of food per person.

  • Alternatively you can give each person a certain quantity of staple food. According to the Hanafis this quantity is the same as the quantity of food to be donated per person in Sadqatul Fitr, i.e. half a Sa' of wheat or a Sa' of dates etc. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4

Requirements about the needy people:

  • They must be Muslim according to the majority of the madhabs, because Kaffara is a ritual charity and these can only be given to Muslims, similar to Zakat.

  • They should not be people regarding whom it obligatory on you to spend on their maintenance (such as your family or spouse).

  • They should not be infants or children who would eat very little.

Further References (Arabic):

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    @Medi1Saif You have already put that disclaimer in the comments. I don't know if the OP will clarify the matter. I am answering the question on its apparent wording "What is Kaffarah" and the points which ask about the nature of food given for Kaffara. IMO questions and answers should be about general teachings of Islam and not about solving the specific circumstances of individuals. – UmH Aug 31 '18 at 6:53
  • Maybe the edited title is fitting better to your answer! – Medi1Saif Aug 31 '18 at 7:22

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