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In some of the ahadith which quotes testaments and limits a testament part to one third of the wealth of a person. The Prophet () warns a sahabi not to leave his inheritors (children) poor due to his excessive spending of money (in a agreeable to God manner: sadaqah, testament etc.)

The Prophet (ﷺ) visited me at Mecca while I was ill. I said (to him), "I have property; May I bequeath all my property in Allah's Cause?" He said, "No." I said, "Half of it?" He said, "No." I said, "One third of it?" He said, "One-third (is alright), yet it is still too much, for you'd better leave your inheritors wealthy than leave them poor, begging of others. Whatever you spend will be considered a Sadaqa for you, even the mouthful of food you put in the mouth of your wife. Anyhow Allah may let you recover, so that some people may benefit by you and others be harmed by you." (Sahih al-Bukhari)

My question is, what concept or concepts do the Islamic jurisprudence offer to save a person (or those he is in charge of or his inheritors) from an excess of spending money or to fool away one's money in order to hinder him from ruining himself and those he is in charge of?

I'd be glad if you explained the concept in comprehensible manner.

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