1

In what ayah(s) does it state that we need to perform Ghusl, for what occasions, and why? I understand that the Quran talks about religious purity, but it never explains how to recover from religious impurity.

The reply I am looking for would only consist of Quran references; please refrain from answers that rely on hadiths or third-party explanations of God's verses.

2

Quran mentions Ghusl (غسل‎) for ritual purification from Janabah:

ياأيها الذين آمنوا لا تقربوا الصلاة ... ولا جنبا ... حتى تغتسلوا

O you who have believed, do not approach prayer ... or in a state of janabah, ... until you have washed [your whole body].

Quran 4:43

It is also implied to be required after Menstruation:

وإن كنتم جنبا فاطهروا

And if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves.

Quran 5:6

ويسألونك عن المحيض قل هو أذى فاعتزلوا النساء في المحيض ولا تقربوهن حتى يطهرن فإذا تطهرن فأتوهن من حيث أمركم الله

And they ask you about menstruation. Say, "It is harm, so keep away from wives during menstruation. And do not approach them until they are pure. And when they have purified themselves, then come to them from where Allah has ordained for you.

Quran 2:222

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