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I am a Muslim and I am assured that QURAN is devine. I used to surf websites so I found that in an anti-Islamic site there was mentioned that inheritance shares are not summing as 1 I have searched regarding It but not satisfied and this question is haunting me for years. I believe that QURAN can't have contradictions so I should ask someone who is knowledgeable.(I don't know arabic ) sorry for grammatical mistakes

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It is stated in the noble Quran:

Allah instructs you concerning your children: for the male, what is equal to the share of two females. But if there are [only] daughters, two or more, for them is two thirds of one's estate. And if there is only one, for her is half. And for one's parents, to each one of them is a sixth of his estate if he left children. But if he had no children and the parents [alone] inherit from him, then for his mother is one third. And if he had brothers [or sisters], for his mother is a sixth, after any bequest he [may have] made or debt. Your parents or your children - you know not which of them are nearest to you in benefit. [These shares are] an obligation [imposed] by Allah . Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

And for you is half of what your wives leave if they have no child. But if they have a child, for you is one fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they [may have] made or debt. And for the wives is one fourth if you leave no child. But if you leave a child, then for them is an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest you [may have] made or debt. And if a man or woman leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth. But if they are more than two, they share a third, after any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there is no detriment [caused]. [This is] an ordinance from Allah , and Allah is Knowing and Forbearing. Surat

An-Nisā' 4:11-12

I'm taking one of the cases in which a husband dies and leaves behind a wife, a daughters and his parents.

Man dies leaving behind Wife is 1/8 = 3/24 Daughters 1/2 = 12/24 Father 1/6 = 4/24 Mother1/6 = 4/24 Total = 23/24 = .9583333333333333333 As you see the total is less than one.

Another case of the same kind in which a husband dies and leaves behind a wife, 3 daughters and his parents.

Man dies leaving behind Wife is 1/8 = 3/24 Daughters 2/3 = 16/24 Father 1/6 = 4/24 Mother1/6 = 4/24 Total = 27/24 = 1.125 Here the total is more than one.

Am I calculating something wrong?

  • @Uma thankyou for you response verses are QURAN chapter 4:12,4:13 – mahin hussain Jul 11 '18 at 18:27
  • Salam and welcome to IslamSE the Q&A site about Islam. To learn more about our site and model consider taking our tour and checking our help center. This site is not meant as a peer support. – Medi1Saif Jul 11 '18 at 18:32
  • @Uma brother i have entered information in question description INSHALLAH i will get answer – mahin hussain Jul 11 '18 at 20:18
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You've mentioned two cases in inheritance law:

A person dies leaving 1 wife 1 daughter 1 mother 1 father and no other relatives.

The prescribed shares are:

The wife      1/8 or 12.50%    
The daughter  1/2 or 50.00%    
The mother    1/6 or 16.67%     
The father    1/6 or 16.67%   
---------------------------
Remainder:    1/24 or 4.17%

The remainder goes to the closest male relative (the father):

ألحقوا الفرائض بأهلها فما بقي فهو لأولى رجل ذكر

Give the shares to those who are entitled to them, and what remains over goes to the nearest male heir.

Bukhari and Muslim

So the final inheritance will be:

The wife receives        1/8               or 12.50%    
The daughter receives    1/2               or 50.00%    
The mother receives      1/6               or 16.67%     
The father receives      5/24 (1/6 + 1/24) or 20.83%   

A person leaves 1 wife 3 daughters 1 mother 1 father and no other relatives:

The prescribed shares are:

The wife       1/8  or 12.50%    
The daughters  2/3  or 66.67%    
The mother     1/6  or 16.67%     
The father     1/6  or 16.67%   
-----------------------------
Shortfall:     3/24 or 12.50%

There is a shortfall so some heirs must receive less than their prescribed shares, similar to how lenders must receive less than their shares when the estate of a defaulter falls short.

There are two solutions: One is that every heir will bear the shortfall, the other is that one heir with least priority will bear the shortfall.

There is consensus of the majority of the sahabah on the first option, since we don't have any strong evidence of priority of rights of inheritance, so all heirs share the shortfall. This rule is called al-'Awl (العول).

The shortfall is divided among each of the heirs, by dividing the estate into 27 shares rather than 24. The final inheritance will be:

The wife receives         3/27  or 11.11%    
The daughters receive    16/27  or 59.26%    
The mother receives       4/27  or 14.81%     
The father receives       4/27  or 14.81%   
  • brother as you have mentioned "Give the shares to those who are entitled to them, and what remains over goes to the nearest male heir."-Bukhari, is this hadith is mentioned by prophet specifically for this case – mahin hussain Jul 12 '18 at 9:20
  • @mahinhussain No, the wording of the hadith do not specify any particular case. – UmH Jul 12 '18 at 9:46
  • thankyou brother for your response ,then do hadith meant that whatever is left after distribution in any case goes to nearest male hier? – mahin hussain Jul 12 '18 at 10:08
  • @mahinhussain Not for example in cases where a son is present, the share of a son and daughter are always linked in 2:1, so a daughter gets more inheritance when she has a brother. – UmH Jul 12 '18 at 10:25
  • @Uma As per Quran 4:11, the male takes a share equal to that of two females ... you seem to have flipped the ratio unintentionally. – Ahmed Jul 12 '18 at 14:14

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