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Let us suppose that at some time in the future, followers of Islam find their way to planets other than earth, and let us suppose that on one of these planets, in order to maintain proper levels of vitamin D, people must expose as much of their bodies as practical to the light of a different sun that emits far less ultraviolet light than our own sun, for as much of the daylight hours as possible, as no foods or supplements containing any vitamin D at all are available.

Should a person maintain properly modest attire according to Islam as we know it now, in such an environment they would surely develop Vitamin D deficiency diseases. It should not be considered possible to leave such an environment - the journey would be one-way, and neither would it have been possible to anticipate prior to arrival on the new planet that such conditions might exist without vitamin D supplements being available.

I have no doubt that exposing one's whole body to the light of the sun - and since work must still be done, to the view of other people - all day would be considered very immodest, but how could this as a necessity of health in this peculiar situation be reconciled with the Islamic requirement to remain modesty dressed?

I would appreciate answers that reference appropriate scripture.

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Your question talks about an unknown future based on assumptions.

I would start with referring to the below Hadith:

It was narrated that Abu Hurairah said: "The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: 'The strong believer is better and more beloved to Allah than the weak believer, although both are good. Strive for that which will benefit you, seek the help of Allah, and do not feel helpless. If anything befalls you, do not say, "if only I had done such and such" rather say "Qaddara Allahu wa ma sha'a fa'ala (Allah has decreed and whatever he wills, He does)." For (saying) 'If' opens (the door) to the deeds of Satan.'"

Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 79

In Islamic scriptures, there is no mention of human settlements on another celestial body, not even the moon. Many modern day scholars believe that one of the things to note among the signs of end times that Allah has given us is the fact that all of them occur on earth. We know that the Final Hour will come on everything that is alive. So all creatures including humans, jinns, animals, birds, plants, microbes and those that we are not aware of will die. Hence, it is highly unlikely that humans will settle on another planetary body.

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَآئِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ
Every soul shall taste Death

The earth was described by the Prophet (SAW) as an old woman and in another Hadith he said that he and the final hour are very close.

Narrated Sahl bin Sad As-Saidi:

(a companion of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)) Allah's Messenger (ﷺ), holding out his middle and index fingers, said, "My advent and the Hour's are like this (or like these)," namely, the period between his era and the Hour is like the distance between those two fingers, i.e., very short.

Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 7, Book 63, Hadith 221

In short, our time below this universe of the first sky is very short. We should avoid assuming things and coming up with laws for events that are still ghaib. It is more beneficial for us to concentrate on our present life, educate our parents, siblings, children, friends on Islam and help the next generation to be on the straight path. Inshallah this will be sawab-e-jariya.

Edit:

Based on the conversation with @Monty Wild in the comment section, I am adding the below ayah from the Quran 2:172 and 2:173:

O you who have believed, eat from the good things which We have provided for you and be grateful to Allah if it is [indeed] Him that you worship. He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah . But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit], there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

As the ayah shows in exceptional cases, the live of a person takes precedence over the laws of Halal and Haram. (More details in the comment section)

  • So, are you saying that the scenario I describe would not occur because good Muslims would/should not leave Earth for any reason? Or are you refusing to answer because it is hypothetical? The hadith you quoted seems to me to be saying more "don't regret the past" than "don't consider the future". Should people not consider the future, they would die, for they would not work to obtain the necessities of life. Please answer the question rather than saying that it could not happen. Perhaps the Muslims I describe disobeyed a hadith to get into that situation. Deal with it and more on...? – Monty Wild Jul 4 '18 at 0:21
  • And I can't even downvote your wordy refusal to answer because I don't have enough reputation here. – Monty Wild Jul 4 '18 at 0:24
  • A similar scenario that may play out on Earth might be that a community of Muslims are conquered by unbelievers, who sieze all weapons then tell the Muslims, remove all your clothing or you will be killed, resist us and you will be killed, otherwise you may proceed with your lives undisturbed. Should they obey and live or resist and die? – Monty Wild Jul 4 '18 at 0:32
  • Dear brother/sister, you missed the moot point of my answer. You ask for a Islamic ruling on a scenario that has "not occurred" and "may not occur" in the future. It is a hypothetical question about the future. There is no Islamic command w.r.t it. If by God's will such a scenario occurs, than the ulema of the time will come to a consensus and issue a fatwa. – Ahmed Jul 4 '18 at 10:51
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    I will try to answer your comment with an analogy. As is well known, pork is forbidden to be consumed by Muslims in Islam. The only exception being a scenario where it is only source of food and not eating it would mean the person would starve to death. In such exceptional cases the live of a person takes precedence and they are allowed to eat the animal but only as long as no other food source is found. – Ahmed Jul 6 '18 at 9:15

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