I'm not trying to goad anyone, or start a fight, or pass judgment. I'm asking out of genuine curiosity. Please read accordingly.
I seek to learn how Muslims choose their response to deliberate, gratuitous abuse of Islam, the Qur'an, Muhammad, Allah, the Prophets, or anything else relating to Islam. I assume that it is prescribed, by one or more doctrinal authorities. I did a very rough, informal search of some Islamic resources, I found many items in favor of a mild response, but only one in favor of a more vigorous response. I've listed all that at the end of the post, because someone will surely want to see it.
My observations in online forums have been overwhelmingly biased toward the vigorous response. My observations of video footage of angry mobs of non-radical Muslims tend to provide reinforcement. I'm trying to find the religious motivations behind it, and get any other related knowledge that anyone can share.
I've asked Muslims before why they're bothered about insult to Islam. Almost invariably, the response is along the lines of, "How would you feel if someone insulted your mother?" Beside not being an answer, that's an aspect of culture rather than religion. I'm hoping for something a bit more doctrinally rigorous.
Genuine question, no judgment, just curiosity, please interpret as such.
Here are some items I found in support of a mild response.
Sura 3:186 - You will surely be tested in your possessions and in yourselves. And you will surely hear from those who were given the Scripture before you and from those who associate others with Allah much abuse. But if you are patient and fear Allah - indeed, that is of the matters [worthy] of determination.
Sura 7:200 - If a provocation from Satan should provoke thee, seek refuge in God
Sura 23:96-98 - Repel thou the evil with that which is fairer...And say: 'O my Lord, I take refuge in Thee...and I take refuge in Thee, O my Lord'
Sura 41:34 - Not equal are the good deed and the evil deed. Repel with that which is fairer and behold, he between whom and thee there is enmity shall be as if he were a loyal friend.
Anas reported: A Bedouin urinated in the mosque. Some of the persons stood up (to reprimand him or to check him from doing so), but the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: Leave him alone; don't interrupt him. He (the narrator) said: And when he had finished, he called for a bucket of water and poured it over. (Muslim hadith 557, Book of purification)
Here is the item I found in support of a vigorous response
Sura 9:12 - And if they break their oaths after their treaty and defame your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief, for indeed, there are no oaths [sacred] to them; [fight them that] they might cease.
There was quite a lot of Tafsir commentary on this verse, but I didn't find any other Ayahs or Hadiths on the subject.