Faatimah is a part of me, and whatever hurts her hurts me. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3110; Muslim, 2449.
Does the statement mean that prophet's other daughters namely Ruqayyah, Zainab and Umme kulthum are also part of him?
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Sahih Muslim 2449 states:
" إِنَّ بَنِي هِشَامِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ اسْتَأْذَنُونِي أَنْ يُنْكِحُوا ابْنَتَهُمْ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَلاَ آذَنُ لَهُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ آذَنُ لَهُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ آذَنُ لَهُمْ إِلاَّ أَنْ يُحِبَّ ابْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ أَنْ يُطَلِّقَ ابْنَتِي وَيَنْكِحَ ابْنَتَهُمْ فَإِنَّمَا ابْنَتِي بَضْعَةٌ مِنِّي يَرِيبُنِي مَا رَابَهَا وَيُؤْذِينِي مَا آذَاهَا " .
Miswar b. Makhramali reported that he heard Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) say, as he sat on the pulpit:
The sons of Hisham b. Mughira have asked my permission to marry their daughter with 'Ali b. Abi Talib (that refers to the daughter of Abu Jahl for whom 'All had sent a proposal for marriage). But I would not allow them, I would not allow them, I would not allow them (and the only alternative possible is) that 'Ali should divorce my daughter (and then marry their daughter), for my daughter is part of me. He who disturbs her in fact disturbs me and he who offends her offends me.
The reason why the Prophet (SAWS) said this is that he wanted to protect his daughter's feelings. It was an offence that hurt her and since the Prophet is her father, i.e 'part of me' , he would also be hurt to see his daughter feeling like this.
The statement is more in the context of the Prophet's paternal love for his daughter. The Prophet is saying that Fatima is his daughter and he will be hurt to see her hurt. The Prophet's other daughters are also 'part of him' as in he is their father and if the same thing happened to them, he would feel the same but it didn't happen to them. 'Part of me' is just referring to biological relationship.