Suppose I'm praying an obligatory prayer behind an Imam at a masjid. Suddenly my wudhu breaks (due to the passing of wind).

Now, if I still keep standing in prayer will I incur sins?

This should help you in answering the question.

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If you intentionally go ahead with a prayer that is invalid you will certainly be sinning, some scholars even discussed whether this is an act that makes you a kafir or not!
Why kafir? Because this person knows the ruling an nevertheless goes against it this is a meaning of kufr in Arabic which is also used in the Qur'an.

قال النووي رحمه الله: إن كان عالما بالحدث وتحريم الصلاة مع الحدث فقد ارتكب معصيةً عظيمةً، ولا يكفر عندنا بذلك، إلا أن يستحله، وقال أبو حنيفة: يكفر لاستهزائه.
دليلنا : أنه معصية فأشبهت الزنا وأشباهه

Imam an-Nawawi said (in his al-Majmu' المجموع شرح المهذب Vol. 2 page 78-79) If he knows that he is impure and that it is haraam to pray when one is impure, then he has committed a grave sin, but he does not become a kaafir thereby in our view, unless he regards that as permissible. But Abu Haneefah said: He has committed kufr because of his disrespect.
Our evidence is that it is a sin so it is akin to zina and the like.
(Source of the translation islamqa #65731)

And from the sunnah:

It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “It was ordered that one of the slaves of Allaah be flogged in his grave with one hundred lashes, but he kept asking until it was reduced to a single blow. So he was given a single blow, then his grave was filled with fire. When he came round, he said: ‘Why did you flog me?’ It was said to him: ‘You offered one prayer without being taahir, and you passed by one who was being wronged and did not help him.’” Narrated by al-Tahhaawi in Mushkil al-Athaar, 4/231; classed as hasan by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 2774. (Source of the translation islamqa #65731)

A prayer without taharah is invalid due to ahadith such as:

"Allah does not accept prayer of anyone of you if he does Hadath (passes wind) till he performs the ablution (anew). (See for example in Sahih al-Bukhari)

On the whole this is an act of disrespect of the rulings of Allah and therefore it is clearly a big sin. And one should repent from this and (of course) re-do this prayer as it is clearly invalid. If one does so by mistake or unintentionally and find out he only needs to re-do this prayer.

My major references:
Fatwas (in Arabic) islamweb #241816 , #167217, #115529 and imam an-Nawawi's al-Majmo'.

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