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When I listen to the first Sura in the Quran, Sura Al-Fatihah, I hear some words at the beginning which are not part of the text in my Quran:

https://www.quran411.com/quran/001.mp3

What do these words mean? After trying to listen to what it is saying, and searching a bit, I find a transliteration like "Audzubillah Himinas Syaiton Nirojim". Apparently the first word means "we seek refuge in Allah", and then there is something about evil maybe?

By contrast, the mp3 for the next Surah, Al-Baqarah, just starts with the "Bismillah" as it is written in my Quran.

What is being recited before the Bismillah in Surah Al-Fatihah?

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You've basically answered your own question all I need to do is correct a few transliteration msitakes and put things together and explain.

What you've heard before the recitation of al-Fatihah was the du'a (supplication) to take refuge by/in Allah from Satan the expelled which is recommended to do before beginning the recitation of the Qur'an as usually no reciter would be able to recite the Qur'an none stop certainly the reciter has done so many times but this was recorded only once in the audio library as the record suggests that it is one recitation.

The reason why Muslims perform this du'a is given in the qur'an:

So when you recite the Qur'an, [first] seek refuge in Allah from Satan, the expelled [from His mercy]. (16:98)

The more correct transliteration is:

A'udhu (A'udzu) billahi mina a-Shaytani ar-Rajeem

This du'a is refered to by either al-Isti'adhah الاستعاذة (seeking refuge or asking for it) or at-Ta'awudh التعوذ.

For details read this fatwa

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