Surah A’raaf (The Heights) has stories of Prophet Adam at the start, moves on, later the Prophet Nuh’s story comes, then Prophet Hud’s, then Prophet Saleh, then Prophet Lut, then Prophet Shu’aib, then talks about how all these towns were destroyed, then gives a good 6 (or more) page story about Prophet Musa (peace be upon all of them).
Surah Hud (A.S.): on the fourth page has Prophet Nuh’s story, right after is Prophet Hud’s, then Prophet Salih’s, then Prophet Ibrahim’s and Lut’s stories, then Prophet Shu’aib’s stories, then a brief mention of Prophet Musa and Fir’aun.
Surah Hijr (Stone Valley) It has on the second page a story of Prophet Adam’s creation, Prophet Ibrahim and Lut’s stories come after Adam’s, after that comes the story or mention of the People of the Ayekah (tree), which was the community in Madyan or the community which Prophet Shu’aib got sent to, after that the People of Hijr (a stone valley) are mentioned, most exegetes refer this people to Thamud, the community Prophet Saleh got sent to.
Surah Anbiyaa’ (Prophets): First story we can see is Prophet Musa and Harun’s story, then Ibrahim’s, then how Ibrahim got Ishaq and Ya’qub later, then a summary of Lut’s mission, then a summary of Nuh’s story, then a small stories for Dawud and Sulaiman, then a summary of Ayyub’s story, then mentions the righteous people (and prophets) Ismael, Idris, and Dhul-Kifl, then summary of the Man of the Fish’s (Yunus) mission, then Zakariyya and how he got Yahya, then mentions Maryam and how Allah chose her and Prophet ‘Isa as a sign for all the worlds.
Surah Shu’araa’ (Poets): First story we can see is Prophet Musa’s story, then Ibrahim’s, then Nuh’s, then Hud’s, then Saleh’s, then Lut’s, then Shu’aib’s.
Surah Saaffat (Rangers): First story is Prophet Nuh’s, then Prophet Ibrahim’s story with Ismael’s mentioned within, then says how Ibrahim got Ishaq later, then Prophet Musa and Harun’s story, then Prophet Ilyas’s story, then Prophet Lut’s, then Prophet Yunus’s.
There are other Surahs which have stories of prophets, but less like Surah Aale Imran (Family of Imran) (contains Zakariyya, Yahya, Maryam, and Isa’s stories) and Surahs which are specifically for one prophet like Surah Yusuf and Surah Qasas (Chapter of the Story (the story is referring to Musa’s story)).
Biblical names of the Islamic prophets and cities mentioned:
Adam - Adam
Idris - Enoch
Nuh - Noah
Hud - thought to be Eber
Saleh - thought to be Menusalakh, Salah, Shelah, Sala (all different names for the same person mentioned in the Bible)
Ibrahim - Abraham
Lut - Lot
Ismael - Ishmael
Ishaq - Isaac
Yaqub - Jacob/Israel
Yusuf - Joseph
Ayyub - Job
Shuaib - thought to be Jethro
Madyan - Midian
Firaun - Pharoah of the Exodus or Pharoah of Moses
Musa - Moses
Harun - Aaron
Ilyas - Elias/Elijah
Dawud - David
Sulaiman - Solomon
Dhul-Kifl - thought to be Ezekiel
Yunus - Jonah
Zakariyya - Zechariah
Yahya - John the Baptist
Imran - Grandfather of the Prophet Jesus and father of Mary (note: Islam has a similar person also called Imran which is the father of Moses and Aaron, so do not get confused. Also Moses also has a sister called Mary so it is very confusing)
Maryam - Mary
Isa - Jesus