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There are certain Islamic terms we Muslims are to use, for example, while thanking someone we say "Jazak Allahu Khayran" and before starting something "Bismillah", intention to do something in the future - "In Sha Allah".

Is there any known term which is to be used while apologizing to someone or are we to just do it informaly?

Jazak Allahu Khayran.

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The way of apologizing to someone is to tell them your sorry and if possible you can offer them a compensation. For example once when the prophet SAW was giving a speech a poor man entered the room. He coincidentally sat next to a rich man. When the rich man saw the poor man next to him he decided to pull his clothes closer to him. The prophet Pbuh saw this act and asked the man why he done that. The man said he was sorry and he said that it was because he did not want to touch the man's clothes. The rich man offered the poor man half of his total wealth but the poor man replied that he would not take it in case he became arrogant like them. The prophet SAW was very happy with the man. Inshallah if you follow the example maybe Allah SWT will be happy with you

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There is a general Du‘a about the wronging of a Muslim:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "O Allah! If I should ever abuse a believer, please let that be a means of bringing him near to You on the Day of Resurrection. (اللَّهُمَّ فَأَيُّمَا مُؤْمِنٍ سَبَبْتُهُ فَاجْعَلْ ذَلِكَ لَهُ قُرْبَةً إِلَيْكَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ)" Al-Bukhari (6361)

As for a face to face apology, I have searched for it and I can not find any reference besides that you should just apologise if the person learned of it however in which shape or form.

Allah says: "[…] and let them pardon and overlook. Would you not like that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful

[An-Noor Verse 22]

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