In Islam, no nation has the innate right to sovereignty over any land:
قال موسى لقومه استعينوا بالله واصبروا إن الأرض لله يورثها من يشاء من عباده والعاقبة للمتقين
قال عسى ربكم أن يهلك عدوكم ويستخلفكم في الأرض فينظر كيف تعملون ...
Said Moses to his people, "Seek help through Allah and be patient. Indeed, the earth belongs to Allah. He causes to inherit it whom He wills of His servants. And the [best] outcome is for the righteous."
... He said, "Perhaps your Lord will destroy your enemy and grant you succession in the land and see how you will do."
— Quran 7:128-129
قل اللهم مالك الملك تؤتي الملك من تشاء وتنزع الملك ممن تشاء وتعز من تشاء وتذل من تشاء بيدك الخير إنك على كل شيء قدير
Say, "O Allah , Owner of Sovereignty, You give sovereignty to whom You will and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You honor whom You will and You humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good. Indeed, You are over all things competent.
— Quran 3:26
Abraham's covenant did not extend unconditionally to all of his descendants for perpetuity:
لا ينال عهدي الظالمين
My covenant does not include the wrongdoers.
— Quran 2:124
And the covenant with the Children of Israel was conditional to them believing and obeying Allah's commands, revelations and Messengers:
يا بني إسرائيل اذكروا نعمتي التي أنعمت عليكم وأوفوا بعهدي أوف بعهدكم وإياي فارهبون
وآمنوا بما أنزلت مصدقا لما معكم ولا تكونوا أول كافر به ولا تشتروا بآياتي ثمنا قليلا وإياي فاتقون
O Children of Israel, remember My favor which I have bestowed upon you and fulfill My covenant [upon you] that I will fulfill your covenant [from Me], and be afraid of [only] Me. And believe in what I have sent down confirming that which is [already] with you, and be not the first to disbelieve in it. And do not exchange My signs for a small price, and fear [only] Me.
— Quran 2:40-41
ولقد أخذ الله ميثاق بني إسرائيل وبعثنا منهم اثني عشر نقيبا وقال الله إني معكم لئن أقمتم الصلاة وآتيتم الزكاة وآمنتم برسلي وعزرتموهم وأقرضتم الله قرضا حسنا لأكفرن عنكم سيئاتكم ولأدخلنكم جنات تجري من تحتها الأنهار فمن كفر بعد ذلك منكم فقد ضل سواء السبيل
And Allah had already taken a covenant from the Children of Israel, and We delegated from among them twelve leaders. And Allah said, "I am with you. If you establish prayer and give zakah and believe in My messengers and support them and loan Allah a goodly loan, I will surely remove from you your misdeeds and admit you to gardens beneath which rivers flow. But whoever of you disbelieves after that has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way."
— Quran 5:12
The Children of Israel broke their covenant:
فبما نقضهم ميثاقهم وكفرهم بآيات الله وقتلهم الأنبياء بغير حق
And for their breaking of the covenant and their disbelief in the signs of Allah and their killing of the prophets without right
— Quran 4:155
فبما نقضهم ميثاقهم لعناهم وجعلنا قلوبهم قاسية
So for their breaking of the covenant We cursed them and made their hearts hard
— Quran 5:13
لقد أخذنا ميثاق بني إسرائيل وأرسلنا إليهم رسلا كلما جاءهم رسول بما لا تهوى أنفسهم فريقا كذبوا وفريقا يقتلون
We had already taken the covenant of the Children of Israel and had sent to them messengers. Whenever there came to them a messenger with what their souls did not desire, a party [of messengers] they denied, and another party they killed.
— Quran 5:70
The Muslims did not take away the sovereignty of the land from the Children of Israel. According to both the Tanakh and the Quran, it was taken from them by Allah because of their sins and transgressions and was delivered into the hands of their enemies:
وضربت عليهم الذلة والمسكنة وباءوا بغضب من الله ذلك بأنهم كانوا يكفرون بآيات الله ويقتلون النبيين بغير الحق ذلك بما عصوا وكانوا يعتدون
And they were covered with humiliation and poverty and returned with anger from Allah [upon them]. That was because they [repeatedly] disbelieved in the signs of Allah and killed the prophets without right. That was because they disobeyed and were [habitually] transgressing.
— Quran 2:61, Also see Quran 17:4-8
And Muslims took it from Rome, i.e. the Christian Byzantine empire; and they took it because they were commanded by Allah to do so.
Therefore, from an Islamic point of view, there is no fundamental reason
which prohibits Muslims from recognizing Israel as a friendly State.
When the present state of Israel occupies land that was once ruled by Muslims, kills Muslims and drives them out of their homes and oppresses them and keep them under siege, then in such circumstances it can not be treated as a friendly state.