"I came to 'Ali with two other men and he said: 'The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to come out of the toilet and recite Qur'an, and he would eat meat with us and nothing would prevent him from (reciting) Qur'an except Janabah." (Sunan an-Nasa'i, with some diffrences Sunan abi Dawod, with a slight difference sunan ibn Majah, appears also in musnad Ahamd)
This hadith has an issue in the narrator chain.
"Allah's Messenger would recite the Qur'an in all conditions, as long as he was not Junub." (Jami' at-Tirmidhi)
An other narration:
the Prophet said: "The menstruating woman does not recite - nor the Junub - anything from the Qur'an." [He said:] There is narration on this topic from Ali (Jami' at-Tirmidhi)
At-Tirmidhi commented this saying:
وَهُوَ قَوْلُ أَكْثَرِ أَهْلِ العِلْمِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، وَالتَّابِعِينَ ، وَمَنْ بَعْدَهُمْ مِثْلِ : سُفْيَانَ الثَّوْرِيِّ ، وَابْنِ الْمُبَارَكِ ، وَالشَّافِعِيِّ ، وَأَحْمَدَ ، وَإِسْحَاقَ
This is the position of mist people of Knowledge among the companions of the Prophet Allahs prayers and blessings be upon him, and the taba'iyn and afterwards: Sufyan a-Thawri, ibn al-Mubarak, A-Shafi'i, Ahmad and Ishaaq
قَالُوا لاَ تَقْرَأُ الْحَائِضُ وَلاَ الْجُنُبُ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ شَيْئًا إِلاَّ طَرَفَ الآيَةِ وَالْحَرْفَ وَنَحْوَ ذَلِكَ وَرَخَّصُوا لِلْجُنُبِ وَالْحَائِضِ فِي التَّسْبِيحِ وَالتَّهْلِيلِ
They said: neither a menstruating woman nor a junub (a person who had intercourse) should recite/read any thing from the Qur'an, except with a part of a verse or a letter or something similar and they allowed them to perform tasbeeh and tahleel.
There are other evidences available, mostly in less frequently used books such as mossanaf 'Abdulrazzaq, sunan ad-Daraqotni and mossanaf ibn Abi Shaybah etc. (see in Arabic islamqa #218917)
Verdict and opinions
Reciting from a moshaf is already not allowed, as this requires taharah meaning: purity in the sense of the major and minor sense. The minor sense was discussed in the post you've linked and I'm addressing the tahara in the sense of major purity:
Scholars of all major schools seem to agree about the ruling as stated by ibn Taymiyyah:
وقال شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية رحمه الله : " فَإِنَّ الْأَئِمَّةَ الْأَرْبَعَةَ مُتَّفِقُونَ عَلَى مَنْعِهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ " انتهى من " مجموع الفتاوى " (21/ 344) . (Source: same fatwa from islqma)
Sheikh al-Islam ibn Taymiyah said: "And the four Imams (of the sunni schools of jurisprudence) are in consensus to prohibit it" (Majmo' al-Fatawa 21/344)
So basically it is not allowed to recite the Qur'an out of your memory our read it from a device which is not a moshaf (a written copy of the Qur'an as this -reading from a moshaf- is not even allowed without minor taharah) no matter if you touch it or not, without at least being in state of minor tahara (meaning: in a state which doesn't make it necessary to perform ghusl).
The only exception in this seemingly consensus is the dhahiri school (as stated in al-Muhalla of ibn Hazm) who allows it based on ahadith allowing dhikr while in this state such as:
The Apostle of Allah (ﷺ) used to remember Allah at all moments. (Sahih Muslim)
Ibn 'Abd al-Barr commented this saying:
قال ابن عبد البر رحمه الله : " وَقَدْ شَذَّ دَاوُدُ عَنِ الْجَمَاعَةِ بِإِجَازَةِ قِرَاءَةِ الْقُرْآنِ لِلْجُنُبِ"
(My own translation take it carefully)
"and Dawood was deviant from the group (majority of scholars) by allowing Qur'an recitation for the Junub"
Ibn Rajab in his fath al-Bary commented the hadith above saying:
وفيه دليل على أن الذكر لا يمنع منهُ حدث ولا جنابة ، وليس فيهِ دليل على جواز قراءة القرآن للجنب ؛ لأن ذكر الله إذا أطلق لا يراد بهِ القرآن
(My own translation takje it with care)
And it is an evidence to say that dhikr can not be prohibited for state of minor impurity or janabah (major impurity), and this is not an evidence for the permission to recite/read the Qur'an while Junub, as dhikr Allah if referred to doesn't mean Qur'an (in general).
Listening to Qur'an on the other hand is permissible (see islamqa #147164 and #10672).