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Christianity describes ten plagues of Egypt: (a) water into blood, (b) frogs, (c) lice, (d) mixture of wild animals or flies, (e) diseased livestock, (f) boils, (g) thunderstorm of hail and fire, (h) locusts, (i) darkness for three days, and (j) death of firstborn.

In contrast, the Qur'an says:

So We sent upon them the flood and locusts and lice and frogs and blood as distinct signs, but they were arrogant and were a criminal people.
Qur'an 7:133

This difference motivates the question:

Question: Does Qur'an 7:133 imply there were five plagues of Egypt?

Qur'an 17:101 says We had certainly given Moses nine evident signs, but it seems likely this also includes miracles like his glowing hand and his staff.

In the context of Prophet Musa, we also have:

So each We seized for his sin; and among them were those upon whom We sent a storm of stones, and among them were those who were seized by the blast [from the sky], and among them were those whom We caused the earth to swallow, and among them were those whom We drowned. And Allah would not have wronged them, but it was they who were wronging themselves.
Qur'an 29:40

Some (or all) of them don't seem like "plagues" (which would ordinarily be interpreted as a widespread catastrophe). They seem more localized and targeted. I'm not sure if these count.

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No the Qur'an actually quotes more than that. You've missed to read a few verses earlier:

And We certainly seized the people of Pharaoh with years of famine and a deficiency in fruits that perhaps they would be reminded. (7:130)

And the story itself even begins long before.

Note that the second of two interpretations of "at-Tufan" الطوفان which was translated flood by ibn 'Abas according to ibn Kathir in his tafsir is related to:

So there came upon the garden an affliction from your Lord while they were asleep. (68:19) And it became as though reaped. (68:20)

Which means that they might have been "attacked" by an affliction of Allah which is also quoted by at-Tabari on the authority of ibn 'Abbas (hadith/narration #15000). Ibn Kathir also quoted a hadith which apparently was quoted by at-Tabari in his tafsir (hadith/narration #14996) saying: "At-Tufan is death".
Note that the many interpretations of some of these words in Arabic may easily make them reach 10 plagues. But as said in the other answer these are only examples of the plagues not a full list. (For hopefully more details about verse 7:133 refer to qtafsir)

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Allah does not say the following (he does not say 'only'):

So We sent upon them [only] the flood and locusts and lice and frogs and blood as distinct signs, but they were arrogant and were a criminal people.

He just mentions some of the signs sent to the people of Egypt. There is no reason to assume He means there were only five plagues (It is possible though. Maybe the story is corrupted in the bible to add more plagues but there is no reason to assume that from this ayah). Allah is not giving a comprehensive list of plagues or signs. He is only listing a few that He wanted to mention.

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We granted Moses Nine clear signs. Ask the Children of Israel about that: when these signs came forth, Pharaoh said to him: "Moses, I think that you are bewitched." Quran - 17:101

Nine Signs from Quran Proof given below

(27:10) Now cast your rod!" But when he saw the rod writhing as though it were a serpent,he turned his back in retreat and did not even look behind. "O Moses, have no fear. Messengers have no fear in My presence,(Sign # Stick become Serpent)

(27:12) Now put your hand into your bosom, and it will come forth shining without any blemish. (These are two of the) nine Signs to be carried to Pharaoh and his people. They are surely a wicked people."(Sign# 2 Hand of Moses(P.B.U.H))

(7:130) And We certainly seized the people of Pharaoh with years of famine and a deficiency in fruits that perhaps they would be reminded.(Sign # 3 Famine)

(7:133) So We sent upon them the flood and locusts and lice and frogs and blood as distinct signs, but they were arrogant and were a criminal people.(Sign # 4 Flood, Sign # 5 Locusts, Sign # 6 Lice, Sign # 7 Frogs & Sign # 8 Blood)

Final Sign #9 (Splitting of Sea)

(44:23) (We told Moses): “Set out with My servants by night"for you will certainly be pursued.

(44:24) And leave the sea behind you as calm as ever. Surely they are an army that is doomed to be drowned.”

(26:63) Then We revealed to Moses, (commanding him): "Strike the sea with your rod." Thereupon the sea split up, and then each became like the mass of a huge mount.

Punishment to Pharoah

(7:136) So We inflicted Our retribution on them, and caused them to drown in the sea because they gave the lie to Our signs and were heedless of them.

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