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As we have a lot of questions asking about the validity of a prayer due to something expected or assumed to be a najasa النجاسة and many questioners seem to confound tahara الطهارة with cleanness and najasa النجاسة with dirtiness, here some examples:

What dirty (but ritually clean) surfaces can you pray on?
What stains make a prayer invalid
Is my prayer valid given that I wore pants which were dirtied by water splashed onto them by a passing car?
...

I thought it might make sense to ask a rather general question (similar to Which things break the wudu?) so that we might be able to refer to it later.

I'd like to ask what things are considered to be najis نجس or among the najasaat النجاسات in all approved fiqh schools?

I know that there might be details, but to some extent we may find alcohol, urine and excrement as common in all schools (and Allah knows best).

P.S. to our Shi'a brothers and sisters: In many if not most of my questions I've been hoping for answers from your side!

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Section e14.1 of the Shafi'i fiqh book The Reliance of the Traveller (p. 95) by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller) lists the following as filth (najasa):

  1. urine;
  2. excrement;
  3. blood;
  4. pus;
  5. vomit;
  6. wine;
  7. any liquid intoxicant;
  8. dogs and pigs, or their offspring;
  9. wady and madhy [defined in Section e10.5 as: "thick, cloudy white fluid" and "thin, sticky, white fluid", respectively (presumably from the genitals)]
  10. slaughtered animals that may not be eaten by Muslims;
  11. unslaughtered dead animals other than aquatic life, locusts, or humans;
  12. the milk of animals (other than human) that may not be eaten;
  13. the hair of unslaughtered dead animals; and
  14. the hair of animals (other than human) that may not be eaten.

It also describes (a) minor differences of opinion for liquid intoxicants in the form of cologne or cosmetics, (b) amphibious life not being considered aquatic, and (c) minor differences of opinion for unslaughtered dead animal. It also describes:

e14.3 That which comes from the mouth of a sleeping person is impure if from the stomach, but pure if from the saliva ducts.

It enumerates some things as pure:

  1. seminal fluid that has reached the stages of gestation in the womb;
  2. the moisture of a woman's private parts;
  3. the eggs of anything;
  4. the milk, fur, wool, or feathers of all animals that may be eaten;
  5. human milk, male sperm, and female sexual fluid.

It also mentions some technicalities with the moisture of a woman's private parts.

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*يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلوةِ فاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُواْ بِرُؤُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَينِ

“O you who believe! When you stand (intend) to offer the Salah, then wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to the ankles.” [ Surah al-Ma’idah Ayah 6 ]*

As far as I know, Najis is divided into several levels ranging from mild to heavy.

1. Najis Mukhaffafah / (Mild)

Najis Mukhaffafah is an najis whose law is lightened. It is found in the urine of baby boys who are only given breast milk (breast milk) without other food and not yet 2 years old. To purify the najis mukhafafah is enough to sprinkle clean water to the affected part of the najis.

2. Najis Mutawassithah (Ordinary)

NajisMutawassithah is najis that is contained in everything that comes out of the human and animal's grave and rectum, khamar, sperm, menstrual blood, etc. To purify the unclean mutawassithah ie by eliminating it thoroughly. Can be watered until clean, rubbed with soil or other objects, or in other ways.

Najis Mutawasitah consists of two parts, namely:

  1. Najis'Ainiyah : Clear looks, taste or smell.
  2. Najis Hukmiyah : Former urine & alcohol.

3. Najis Mughallazhah (Heavy)

Najis Mughallazhah is najis of high degree so that to purify it must be washed with clean water 7 times in which 1 time using water mixed with soil. This is an example of saliva dogs, pigs, etc.

Nb: Najis Ma'fu is najis which is not obliged to be cleaned / purified because it is difficult to distinguish which is unclean and unholy.

  • Thanks for your answer would you mind quoting the represented view/fiqh school? – Medi1Saif Mar 30 '18 at 12:45
  • You’re welcome. My answer refers to the fiqh of imam Al-Shafi‘i. – Aiʀ Mar 30 '18 at 22:11

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