When I read the Quran, negative thoughts are produced in my mind about parents. Then I feel guilty, but this thought is not going away. What can I do according Qur'an and sunnah?
Can Shaitan trick me to misguide me?
Yes, Shaitan is always there to look for an opportunity to do or let us do something evil and leave good deeds and do bad deeds, as this hadith seems to indicate:
when Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) was in the company of one of his wives a person happened to pass by them. He called him and when he came, he said to him:
0 so and so, she was my such and such wife. Thereupon he said, Allah's Messenger, if I were to doubt at all, I would have entertained no doubt about you at least. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: Verily Satan circulates in the body like blood. (see for example in sahih Muslim)
The hadith therefore compares the action of a-Shaitan with the circulation of blood.
Of course if he could hinder us from worshiping Allah () he would come much closer to his goal and therefore he tries with all his might to whisper and to convince us not to pray on time etc. as this hadith seems to say:
"When the Adhan is pronounced Satan takes to his heels and passes wind with noise during his flight in order not to hear the Adhan. When the Adhan is completed he comes back and again takes to his heels when the Iqama is pronounced and after its completion he returns again till he whispers into the heart of the person (to divert his attention from his prayer) and makes him remember things which he does not recall to his mind before the prayer and that causes him to forget how much he has prayed." (See for example in sahih al-Bukhari)
But Allah taught us what to do in the Qur'an:
And if there comes to you from Satan an evil suggestion, then seek refuge in Allah . Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Knowing. (41:36)
This is the same which our Prophet () has been teaching: When some of the sahaba had an issue as he felt like Satan intervenes between him and his prayer and worship and he makes him feel confound or screw up his recitation while in prayer. The Messenger of Allah told him the name of this specific Shaitan and gave him advice on how to get shot of him:
Allah's Messenger, the Satan intervenes between me and my prayer and my reciting of the Qur'an and he confounds me. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said:, That is (the doing of a) Satan (devil) who is known as Khinzab, and when you perceive its effect, seek refuge with Allah from it and spit three times to your left. I did that and Allah dispelled that from me. (See in sahih Muslim)
Therefore some madhhabs allow it to start the recitation while praying with "I seek refuge with Allah from Shaitan".