The ayah should be understood in the context it was revealed.
When Abdullah bin Salam heard of the arrival of the Prophet in
Al-Madinah, he was working on his land. He came to the Prophet and
said, `I am going to ask you about three things which nobody knows
except a Prophet.
What will be the first sign of the Hour? What will be the first meal
taken by the people of Paradise? Why does a child resemble its father,
and why does it resemble its maternal uncle' ?
Allah's Messenger said, "Jibril has just told me the answers."
Abdullah said, `He (i.e. Jibril), among all the angels, is the enemy
of the Jews.'
Then Allah's Messenger recited the Ayah,
مَنْ كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِلَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ
Allah's Messenger then said,
"The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together
the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of
Paradise will be the caudate lobe of the liver of fish. As for the
child resembling his parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his
wife and his discharge is first, the child will resemble the father.
If the woman has a discharge first, the child will resemble her side
of the family."
On that Abdullah bin Salam said, "I testify that there is no deity
worthy of worship except Allah and you are the Messenger of Allah."
Abdullah bin Salam further said, `O Allah's Messenger! The Jews are
liars, and if they should come to know about my conversion to Islam
before you ask them (about me), they will tell a lie about me.'
The Jews came to Allah's Messenger , and `Abdullah went inside the
Allah's Messenger asked the Jews "What kind of man is `Abdullah bin
They replied, "He is the best among us, the son of the best among us,
our master and the son of our master."
Allah's Messenger said "What do you think if he would embrace Islam?"
The Jews said, "May Allah save him from it."
Then `Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of them saying, "I testify
that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad
is the Messenger of Allah."
Thereupon they said, "He is the evilest among us, and the son of the
evilest among us."
And they continued talking badly about him. Ibn Salam said, "This is
what I feared, O Messenger of Allah!"
Source: Sahih al-Bukhari 3329
The Jews of the time preferred Angel Michael and took Gabriel as their enemy. Hence, they seem to be subject of the ayah.
Also note that among the angels Gabriel, Michael and Raphael (Israfil) are the angels explicitly known by name to have visited the Prophets (including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Jesus and Muhammed) and the Prophet Muhammed (SAW) is also know to have sent salaam on them explicitly.