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In an argument with a non-practicing Muslim friend, I became irritated and asked him Do you even believe? (or something similar). I apologized immediately afterwards. Does this make me a disbeliever now?

Today I remembered falsely calling someone a disbeliever makes you a disbeliever. What about the situation above?

  • Those texts generally refer to someone who is actually professing Islam (eg, praying, doing Islamic rituals). Then, you have no right to cast suspicion on that Muslim because you have no idea what's in his heart. In this case, your friend doesn't actually practice. That raises red flags. -- Your question to him didn't make you a disbeliever; but it's also not the approach I'd take. I'd remind him that the Prophet said abandoning salah is disbelief. – Muslimah يا رب العالمين Mar 18 '18 at 14:27
  • Well maybe your friend is just a normal relaxed believer and you are too radical. Try to relax, too. – Ondra Žižka Mar 18 '18 at 23:35
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Section o8.7 part of The Reliance of the Traveller (a Shafi'i fiqh book) contains a description of the relevant action that makes someone a disbeliever:

(11) to say that a Muslim is an unbeliever (kafir) (dis: w47) in words that are uninterpretable as merely meaning he is an ingrate towards Allah for divinely given blessings (n: in Arabic, also "kafir");
The Reliance of the Traveller, p. 596-597

The stipulated exception implies that asserting someone is behaving ungratefully towards Allah (which appears to be the case in the question) does not amount to kufr.

Nevertheless, while it's hard to avoid sometimes, the Prophet's advice is: do not get angry (Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2020 [grade: sahih]).

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