I am non-Muslim history major student. I would like to know the criteria to determine a Caliphate. I would give an example of the very recent/last Caliphate in the Islamic world, i.e. the leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban), Mullah Mohammed Omar Mujahid or Mullah Omar.

Mullah Omar called himself the Caliphate (Amir Al-Momenin) of all Muslims in the world. He ordered his followers to fully implement the Islamic Sharia laws, i.e. Quran and Hadith texts in almost 80% of Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001, longer than any other conservative Islamic group.

Even famous and recent Islamic figures like Usama Bin Laden and his followers decided to choose Mullah Omar as their Caliphate. Based on Quran/Hadith, what are the criteria to follow a Caliphate of an Islamic Emirate/Government like Mullah Omar?

  • Welcome to Islam SE. Questions are expected to be specific, on topic, and with some research done prior to asking. Please refer to How to Ask, and take a tour in our help center. All the time, there are people who come out and claim to be the leaders to follow, even during the time of the Prophet. Your question will draw opinion-best answers. Furthermore, to respond to your question, one has to know the details of the message of Mullah Mohammed Omar, which very few people, if any, will know. – III-AK-III Feb 16 '18 at 23:19
  • @III-AK-III Thanks for the insight, I will edit the question and be more specific. – Sarah McLauren Feb 16 '18 at 23:22
  • Also, just because someone declares himself or is declared a Caliph does not make him one, even if he has a sizable following. The Muslim world is not a clearly-defined entity, and the situation varies from what existed at the time of the Prophet or the imams mentioned above. – S Karami Feb 18 '18 at 1:27
  • @SKarami Mullah Omar established an Islamic Emirate, implemented the Sharia laws, and majority of his society, represented by Ulemas, voted for him to be Caliphate. Omar did not declare himself to be Caliphate but was chosen. This is a historical fact. Now you say "someone declares himself or is declared a Caliph does not make him one". This is factually incorrect and your personal opinion. If you have an answer based on Quran/Hadith, I look forward to it. – Sarah McLauren Feb 18 '18 at 9:42
  • @SarahMcLauren Thank you for correcting me. But the greater point I was trying to make is that the followers of Mullah Omar are/were a relatively small part of the Muslim world. The idea of a Caliphate is supposed to encompass the entire Muslim world, as it did in the early days of Islam. This is no longer possible; there are too many schisms, and attempts at unifying Muslims into one Ummah or nation have failed. However, the Hajj is still valid, even though Saudi leaders are demonstrably corrupt. But to form a Caliphate is NOT a requirement in Islam, & would only create more conflict. – S Karami Feb 18 '18 at 12:01