I have always known that Ahl-Al Kittab (people of the book) are free to follow their religion according to their laws within the Islamic State respectfully while paying the Jizya. But what about Atheists and Agnostics and the like under an Islamic State? What laws do they respectfully have while they don't necessarily "believe" in such Divine laws as other religions. Do they have their own man-made secular laws, or automatically under Sharia Law (Which is impossible since They are kaffirs and Sharia is in direct conflict with them)? This goes to all beliefs out there (Communist, Pagan, Polytheist etc.)

  • A relevant consideration here is that Dhimmis are not subject to Islamic religious laws such as prohibition of consuming wine and swine etc. however they are subject to our laws in muamalat. There are also differences of opinion on this among the schools on various aspects such as marriage laws. And some schools may not allow for atheists to be Dhimmis. – UmH Sep 19 '18 at 19:03

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