In their 2004 conference in Copenhagen (Arabic only), the jurists stated in "Topic 2: Judicial Action outside the land of Islam — what is halāl and what is harām" that in a country where Islamic law is not practiced for marital matters, it is permitted to use the judicial system of the country provided that recourses knowledgeable about shari'a have been consulted and have determined the legitimacy of such an act or ruling.
Accordingly, you need to seek a fatwa or a resolution from AMJA for the United States, or any other assembly of jurists in your country. The points you need to ask about are:
- Is what took place considered talāq or khul'?
- Are you now considered divorced (based on your intention at the time of the court documents' signature)?
- Based on the answer to question 1, what are your financial obligations, and what are hers?
You may refer to "Does the divorce issued by a kaafir judge or the court in a Western country count as talaaq?" for more information.