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When praying the fard of Dhuhr/Zuhr and Asr salah in congregation behind the imam, the imam recites everything silently.

According to some websites, it is makrooh tahrimi to recite anything behind the imam during salah in the Hanafi madhab, be it silent or loud prayer.

However, they also state that reciting surah Fatiha during congregation is wajib in the Shaf'iee madhab.

Why do the 2 madhabs have such opposite rulings for this incidence?

Question: Do the muqtadis need to recite anything while praying behind the imam, i.e. surahs, salawat, dua e masura, whether it is during silent salah or loud salah?

Please answer from all 4 madhabs view in this with evidence to support each claim

  • I think this is basically covered here islam.stackexchange.com/questions/23449/…, what is dua e masura? – Medi1Saif Jan 5 '18 at 22:38
  • @Medi1Saif The answer explains the ruling of Malik for reciting surahs, while my questions asks for rulings of 4 madhabs for reciting anything, surahs, duas, salawat, tasmiah etc. Dua e masura is recited after durood e Ibrahim/sharif – Armaan Jan 5 '18 at 22:50
  • It covers all 4 madhhabs without quoting the shafi'i and hanbali view explicitly but shafi'is are known for reciting after the Imam and some hanbalis do so. I've never heard this term and have no exact idea what is about, – Medi1Saif Jan 5 '18 at 23:08
  • Ohhhh I just realized that muqtadis must the plural of muqtadi – Casanova Jan 6 '18 at 3:01
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    @Medi1Saif This is dua e masura/dua after durood. It may have different names – Armaan Jan 6 '18 at 10:56
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The question according to Hanafi Fiqh is answered here. According to it:

The position of the Hanafi school is that the follower does not recite any Qur’an behind the imam regardless of the prayer being prayed.

Practically this entails that when praying behind the imam:

  1. One says the opening takbir (Allahu Akbar)

  2. One says the thana (Subhanakallah…)

  3. One does not recite anything after that (So no Audhubillah, bismillah or fatiha). One merely stands and concentrates as much as possible

  4. One says the ‘ameen’ silently, when the imam finishes the faitha.

  5. One does not recite anything after that (so no verse is recited)

  6. One says all the takbirs of movement silently with the imam (so one says “allahu akbar” for going into ruku, prostration and coming up from prostration)

  7. When coming up from ruku only the imam says “sami allahu liman hamidah”, and the follower says: “Allahumma rabbana wa laka al-hamd” silently (or its shorter versions without the ‘allahumma’ and the ‘wa’)

  8. One recites all the tasbihs in ruku and prostration silently (subhana rabbi yal adheem and subhana rabbi yal ala)

  9. One recites the tashhahud (attahiyat), peace and blessings on the prophet (durud), the du’a and the salams with the imam. All of these silently as well.

Although no evidence is provided on that site, here you can read a fatwa containing two hadith in support of this. A reference to an hadith mentioned in the fatwa together with a detailed discussion can be found in this blogpost.

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