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After I asked this question, I got a comment -

you can eat pork if you're in a desert and dying of hunger.

Is there evidence in Holy Quran or hadith that one can break the rule if there is no other option or our life is in danger. Note there are two conditions:

  1. Break the rules because there are no other options. For example if you are in sky you cannot face kabbah for prayer. So you have to break the rule.

  2. You break the rule because you life is in danger. If you do not break the rule, you are likely to die.

Another example:

  • If you think lie can save your life, you should lie.
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Allah is merciful to his servants and doesn't put pressure on who can't bear an obligation. Quran says:

وَلَا نُكَلِّفُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا وَلَدَيْنَا كِتَابٌ يَنطِقُ بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ ﴿المؤمنون: ٦٢﴾

We charge not any soul save to its capacity, and with Us is a Book speaking truth, and they shall not be wronged.

Even Harams that are treated strictly in Islam can be temporarily broken in an insufferable condition:

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَا أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَأَن تَسْتَقْسِمُوا بِالْأَزْلَامِ ذَٰلِكُمْ فِسْقٌ الْيَوْمَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِ الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ فِي مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِّإِثْمٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿المائدة: ٣﴾

It is Haram to you are carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, what has been hallowed to other than God, the beast strangled; the beast beaten down, the beast fallen to death, the beast gored, and that devoured by beasts of prey - excepting that you have sacrificed duly -- as also things sacrificed to idols, and partition by the divining arrows; that is ungodliness. Today the unbelievers have despaired of your religion; therefore fear them not, but fear you Me. Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam for your religion. But whosoever is constrained in emptiness and not inclining purposely to sin -- God is All-forgiving, All-compassionate.

But Allah, Almighty and Merciful, didn't mention such easiness for Riba(usury).

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In general, necessity overrides prohibition, which comes up in medical contexts a lot. It comes from Qur'an verses such as:

  • Regarding food: Qur'an 2:173, 5:3, 6:119, and 6:145. For example, Qur'an 2:173 says:

    He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah. But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit], there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

  • Regarding renouncing one's faith: Qur'an 16:106:

    Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief... except for one who is forced [to renounce his religion] while his heart is secure in faith. But those who [willingly] open their breasts to disbelief, upon them is wrath from Allah, and for them is a great punishment;

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we can not extend some rules without having evidence. each case should be studied separately with qualified scholars.

about prayers in space I found this Istifta:

1Qibla in Poles How are the prayer and fasting and Qibla of a person who has traveled to one of poles because of a reason (considering the fact that there is six months night and six months day in there)? Now, how are the prayer and fasting and Qibla of a person who wants to travel to moon in the way (inside the spaceship) and on the surface of the moon?

This person should act as the moderate regions and we have wrote the explanation of this matter in the book “Prayer and Fasting in Poles”, but Qibla has no problem in poles and person should stand in the direction which has shorter distance to Mecca and from this matter the ruling of prayer and fasting in space travels clears and Qibla of space travelers is the direction of earth in the sky.

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