There are several hadiths documented by Ibn 'Asakir about 'Umar and the Shaytan that are not found elsewhere in books of hadith, one of them is the hadith you quoted, and another about the Shaytan falling on his face whenever he meets 'Umar.
However, there are other hadiths about 'Umar with similar meanings, albeit different wording. One authentic hadith is in Sahih Al-Bukhari (partially quoted):
قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " إِيهٍ يَا ابْنَ
الْخَطَّابِ، وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ مَا لَقِيَكَ الشَّيْطَانُ
سَالِكًا فَجًّا إِلاَّ سَلَكَ فَجًّا غَيْرَ فَجِّكَ
Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "O' Ibn Al-Khattab! By Him in Whose Hands
my life is, whenever Satan sees you taking a way, he follows a way
other than yours!"
Sahih al-Bukhari, Book 78, Hadith 113
There is another hassan hadith in Jami' at-Tirmidhi with a similar meaning (partially quoted):
قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " إِنِّي لأَنْظُرُ إِلَى
شَيَاطِينِ الإِنْسِ وَالْجِنِّ قَدْ فَرُّوا مِنْ عُمَرَ
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Indeed I see the Shayatin among men
and jinn have run from 'Umar."
Jami' at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3691
A third hadith (hassan, too) to the same effect is (partially quoted):
ثُمَّ دَخَلَ عُمَرُ فَأَلْقَتِ الدُّفَّ تَحْتَ اسْتِهَا ثُمَّ قَعَدَتْ
عَلَيْهِ . فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " إِنَّ
الشَّيْطَانَ لَيَخَافُ مِنْكَ يَا عُمَرُ إِنِّي كُنْتُ جَالِسًا وَهِيَ
تَضْرِبُ فَدَخَلَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَهِيَ تَضْرِبُ ثُمَّ دَخَلَ عَلِيٌّ
وَهِيَ تَضْرِبُ ثُمَّ دَخَلَ عُثْمَانُ وَهِيَ تَضْرِبُ فَلَمَّا
دَخَلْتَ أَنْتَ يَا عُمَرُ أَلْقَتِ الدُّفَّ
Then 'Umar entered, so she put the Duff under her, and sat upon it. So
the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Indeed Ash-Shaitan is afraid of you
O 'Umar! I was sitting while she beat it, and then Abu Bakr entered
while she was beating it, then 'Ali entered while she was beating it,
then 'Uthman entered while she was beating it, then when you entered O
'Umar and she put away the Duff."
Jami' at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3690