In Islam, it is mandated that a person wanting to be a muslim must disbeleive and reject thaghuth (Negation) and beleive in Allah (affirmation).These are the two conditions of shahaadah also apparent by the term "Lailaha Illallah" (There is no god- negation) (Except Allah- Affirmation).
"So whoever disbelieves in Taghoot and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it" (Baqarah-256)"
"And We certainly sent, into every nation a messenger, [saying], "Worship Allah and avoid Taghooth."(Al Nahl:36)
Thaghuth in simple terms means, anything worshipped, obeyed or followed other than Allah.
There are 5 main categories of Thaghooth.
1.Shaitan- Shaitan is the leader of thawagheeth (plural) as Allah says
"Did I not enjoin upon you, O children of Adam, that you not worship Satan - [for] indeed, he is to you a clear enemy" (Yaseen:60)
2.The ruler who legislates his own laws or rules by laws other than of Allah.
"Have you not seen those who claim to have believed in what was revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you? They wish to refer legislation to Taghut, while they were commanded to reject it; and Satan wishes to lead them far astray"(Nisa:60)
"Legislation is not but for Allah (i.e. for Allah alone). He has commanded that you worship not except Him. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know."(Yosuf:40)
For example the rulers who rule with their nation with monarchies or democracy by rejecting the islamic way of governence.
- The judge who judges by other than the laws of Allah.
"And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the disbelievers"(Ma'idah:44)
For example the judges who pass judgements based on mad made laws,tribal & cultural laws etc by rejecting the laws of Allah.
4.Those who claim to have knowledge of unseen
"And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what is on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there within the darknesses of the earth and no moist or dry [thing] but that it is [written] in a clear record."(An'Aam:59)
- The one who accepts to be worhipped besides Allah.
"And whoever of them should say, "Indeed, I am a god besides Him"- that one We would recompense with Hell. Thus do We recompense the wrongdoers."(Anbiyaa:29)
Based on this, anything which contrdicts the fundamental beliefs of Islam should be rejected. Otherwise a person may fall into shirk by submitting and being obedient to them.This may include legislating new laws besides the laws of Allah, replacing the laws of Allah, referring to thaguth courts for judgement, following the laws of thaguth which Allah made haram etc.
A person may not fall into shirk by submitting to these laws in cases of compulsion or out of an extreme necessity.(please refer this source to understand what may come under cases of necessity- https://islamqa.info/en/130815) For example, It is obligatory in many countries to have a vehicle insurance which is a branch of riba, to drive a vehicle or they may force you to pay a tax to the state which is not something from Islam and other wise you may have to face consequences. In these cases one can do them out of necessity by not giving the right to legislate to anyone except Allah and reject these thaghut by heart.
Other than that, laws such as administrative laws, traffic laws etc do not contradict the fundamentals of Islam. They are a way to keep society in order and does not have anything to do with belief.So following these laws does not fall under kufr or shirk.