As far as I know the Islamic state has mostly developed in the time of the caliphs and the later dynasties. But surely there must be some sources that might have guided and inspired what we now may call an Islamic state or government. A state always relies on a taxation system to pay clerks etc. so what other sources for state finance are there in Islam except for jizya (based on 9:29) and zakat (based on 9:60)?
Please provide sources from qur'an and sunnah (if possible) for these legal sources!
Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture - [fight] until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled. (9:29)
Zakah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [zakah] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveler - an obligation [imposed] by Allah . And Allah is Knowing and Wise. (9:60)