I wanted to know if it is permissible to recite the duas from the Quran after the last Tashahudd in prayer. I know that I can make duas after the last Tashahudd but I am wondering if there are any restrictions on Quranic duas at that stage.
Making dua' (supplication) after the last tashahud and before the salam is permissible and recommended without any restriction. This is based on the sahih narration on the authority of Abudllah ibn Mas'ud explaining tashahud and ending with the statement:
However there are some suplications which are quoted in ahadith and which should be taken in first place. Note that none of these are quranic dua's, but this of course doesn't mean we should avoid quranic dua'.
In the booklet hisn al-Muslim you may find some of these (here an Arabic link).
In this fatwa from islamqa #5236 you find a recommendation to seek refuge by Allah from the torment of Hell, the torment of grave, the trial of life and death and the mischief of Masih at-Dajjal (Antichrist) -sahih Muslim, sahih al-Bukhari-. This is the most common du'a I know of (it is also quoted in many other hadith compilation and the list from hisn al-Muslim).
An other often quoted dua' is this.
Most scholars say it is better to use known authentic dua's and dua' formulations if there are any!
The hanbali scholar al-Bahuti البهوتي said (My own translation!) in his دقائق أولي النهى لشرح المنتهى Sharh al Muntaha:
إن دعا في تشهده الأخير بما ورد في الكتاب أي : القرآن نحو: ربنا آتنا في الدنيا حسنة وفي الآخرة حسنة وقنا عذاب النار. فلا بأس
And if he recited in his supplication after the last tashahud from what was quoted in the qur'an like: "Our Lord, give us in this world [that which is] good and in the Hereafter [that which is] good and protect us from the punishment of the Fire." (2:201), that will be fine (permissible).
(source this -Arabic- fatwa on islamweb)
See also on islamweb in Arabic